Kidney transplantation

kidney transplantrenal transplantationrenal transplantkidney transplantskidneytransplantdonated a kidneydonate a kidneykidneyskidney donation
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.wikipedia
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Organ transplantation

organ transplanttransplanttransplantation
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. One of the earliest mentions about the possibility of a kidney transplant was by American medical researcher Simon Flexner, who declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago in 1907 that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery, including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart.
Organs that have been successfully transplanted include the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus.

Jean Hamburger

A kidney transplant between living patients was undertaken in 1952 at the Necker hospital in Paris by Jean Hamburger, although the kidney failed after 3 weeks.
He is particularly known for his contribution to nephrology, and for having performed the first renal transplantation in France in 1952.

Joseph Murray

Joseph E. MurrayJoseph Edward Murray, MD
The Boston transplantation, performed on December 23, 1954 at Brigham Hospital, was performed by Joseph Murray, J. Hartwell Harrison, John P. Merrill and others.
Joseph Edward Murray (April 1, 1919 – November 26, 2012) was an American plastic surgeon who performed the first successful human kidney transplant on identical twins Richard and Ronald Herrick on December 23, 1954.

National Kidney Registry

National Kidney Registry (NKR)
In February 2012, this novel approach to expand the living donor pool resulted in the largest chain in the world, involving 60 participants organized by the National Kidney Registry.
Historically, these donors would be turned away and the patient would lose the opportunity to receive a life-saving kidney transplant.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.

J. Hartwell Harrison

J. Hartwell Harrison, M.D.John Hartwell Harrison, M.D.
The Boston transplantation, performed on December 23, 1954 at Brigham Hospital, was performed by Joseph Murray, J. Hartwell Harrison, John P. Merrill and others.
John Hartwell Harrison (February 16, 1909 – January 20, 1984) was an American urologic surgeon, professor, and author, who performed the first vital human organ removal for transplant to another; this was a pivotal undertaking as a member of the medical team that received the 1961 Amory Prize of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for bringing kidney transplantation to the world.

Heart transplantation

heart transplantheartcardiac transplantation
One of the earliest mentions about the possibility of a kidney transplant was by American medical researcher Simon Flexner, who declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago in 1907 that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery, including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart.
One of the first mentions of the possibility of heart transplantation was by American medical researcher Simon Flexner, who declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago in 1907 that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery — including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart.

Jim Dempster

William J. DempsterWilliam James "Jim" Dempster
In 1955, Charles Rob, William James "Jim" Dempster (St Marys and Hammersmith, London) carried out the first deceased donor transplant in United Kingdom, which was unsuccessful.
He published more than 100 scientific reviews and papers on kidney transplant rejection in dogs, confirming that rejection was an example of immune response, mediated by serum antibodies.

Michael Woodruff

Michael Francis Addison WoodruffMichaelSir Michael Woodruff
A year later, in 1960, the first successful living kidney transplant in the UK occurred, when Michael Woodruff performed one between identical twins in Edinburgh.
His work in these areas of transplantation biology led Woodruff to perform the first kidney transplant in the United Kingdom, on 30 October 1960.

Charles Rob

In 1955, Charles Rob, William James "Jim" Dempster (St Marys and Hammersmith, London) carried out the first deceased donor transplant in United Kingdom, which was unsuccessful.
After the Second World War, he became involved in the vascular surgery programme at St Mary's Hospital, London where he carried out one of the world's first carotid endarterectomies and a year later performed the UK's first deceased donor human-to-human kidney transplant.

Hemodialysis

haemodialysisdialysisScribner shunt
The majority of renal transplant recipients are on dialysis (peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis) at the time of transplantation.
Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being kidney transplant and peritoneal dialysis).

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.
Severe disease requires hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant for survival.

Chris Strouth

UltraModern
In 2009, US transplant recipient Chris Strouth received a kidney from a donor who connected with him on Twitter, which is believed to be the first such transplant arranged entirely through social networking.
Strouth also gained national attention in 2009 when he received a life-saving kidney transplant from a donor who connected with him on Twitter, which is believed to be the first such transplant arranged entirely through social networking.

Richard Herrick

RichardRonald Lee Herrick
The procedure was done between identical twins Ronald and Richard Herrick which reduced problems of an immune reaction.
Richard J. Herrick (June 15, 1931 – March 14, 1963) was the world's first recipient of a successful human organ transplant, receiving a kidney from his identical twin brother Ronald, in an operation performed by Joseph Murray, Hartwell Harrison, and Joseph Merrill in 1954.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Prednisolone suppresses the immune system, but its long-term use at high doses causes a multitude of side effects, including glucose intolerance and diabetes, weight gain, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, hypercholesterolemia, and cataract formation.
Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Simon Flexner

One of the earliest mentions about the possibility of a kidney transplant was by American medical researcher Simon Flexner, who declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago in 1907 that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery, including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart.
In December 1907 Flexner declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery—including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart.

Gestational hypertension

pregnancy-induced hypertensionpregnancy induced hypertensionhypertension of pregnancy
Women who have donated a kidney have a higher risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia than matched nondonors with similar indicators of baseline health.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
Women who have donated a kidney have a higher risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia than matched nondonors with similar indicators of baseline health.

Kidney Paired Donation

Paired Kidney Exchange
Kidney exchange, also known as "kidney paired donation" or "chains" have recently gained popularity.
Kidney Paired Donation (KPD) or Paired Exchange, is an approach to living donor kidney transplantation where patients with incompatible donors swap kidneys to receive a compatible kidney.

Skin cancer

non-melanoma skin cancerskinskin neoplasm
However, suppressing an individual's immune system places that individual at greater risk of infection and cancer (particularly skin cancer and lymphoma), in addition to the side effects of the medications.
A meta-analysis of skin cancer prevention in high risk individuals found evidence that topical application of T4N5 liposome lotion reduced the rate of appearance of basal cell carcinomas in people with xeroderma pigmentosum, and that acitretin taken by mouth may have a skin protective benefit in people following kidney transplant.

Polycystic kidney disease

polycystic kidneypolycystic kidneysAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
It was not until June 17, 1950, when a successful transplant was performed on Ruth Tucker, a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, by Dr. Richard Lawler at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois.
That will either be some form of dialysis, which can be done at least two different ways at varying frequencies and durations (whether it is done at home or in the clinic depends on the method used and the patient's stability and training) and eventually, if they are eligible because of the nature and severity of their condition and if a suitable match can be found, unilateral or bilateral kidney transplantation.

Azathioprine

ImuranAzahexalAzasan
Some recipients may instead take ciclosporin, sirolimus, or azathioprine.
It is used in rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in kidney transplants to prevent rejection.

John P. Merrill

The Boston transplantation, performed on December 23, 1954 at Brigham Hospital, was performed by Joseph Murray, J. Hartwell Harrison, John P. Merrill and others.

Ciclosporin

cyclosporinecyclosporincyclosporin A
Some recipients may instead take ciclosporin, sirolimus, or azathioprine.
Ciclosporin is approved by the FDA to treat and prevent graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation and to prevent rejection of kidney, heart, and liver transplants.

Sirolimus

rapamycinRapamune
Some recipients may instead take ciclosporin, sirolimus, or azathioprine.
Serious side effects including hypersensitivity and swelling (edema) have been observed in renal transplant patients.