Kinetic theory of gases

kinetic theorythermal motionkineticthermal pressuregas pressureKinetic molecular theorykinetic theorieskinetic theory of gaskinetic-molecular theoryaverage kinetic energy
The kinetic theory of gases describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion.wikipedia
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Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
The kinetic theory of gases describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion.
In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition.

Temperature

temperaturesair temperaturewarm
Kinetic molecular theory defines temperature in its own way, in contrast with the thermodynamic definition.
Kinetic theory provides a microscopic account of temperature for some bodies of material, especially gases, based on macroscopic systems' being composed of many microscopic particles, such as molecules and ions of various species, the particles of a species being all alike.

John Herapath

Great Comet of 1831Herapath's JournalHerapath's Railway and Commercial Journal
1780, published 1818), John Herapath (1816) and John James Waterston (1843), which connected their research with the development of mechanical explanations of gravitation.
John Herapath (30 May 1790 – 24 February 1868) was an English physicist who gave a partial account of the kinetic theory of gases in 1820 though it was neglected by the scientific community at the time.

John James Waterston

John WaterstonJohn J. WaterstonJohn Waterson (physicist)
1780, published 1818), John Herapath (1816) and John James Waterston (1843), which connected their research with the development of mechanical explanations of gravitation.
John James Waterston (1811 – 18 June 1883) was a Scottish physicist, a neglected pioneer of the kinetic theory of gases.

Georges-Louis Le Sage

Georges LesageGeorges-Louis LeSage
Other pioneers of the kinetic theory (which were neglected by their contemporaries) were Mikhail Lomonosov (1747), Georges-Louis Le Sage (ca.
Georges-Louis Le Sage (13 June 1724 – 9 November 1803) was a Genevan physicist and is most known for his theory of gravitation, for his invention of an electric telegraph and his anticipation of the kinetic theory of gases.

James Clerk Maxwell

MaxwellJ. C. MaxwellJames Maxwell
In 1859, after reading a paper on the diffusion of molecules by Rudolf Clausius, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell formulated the Maxwell distribution of molecular velocities, which gave the proportion of molecules having a certain velocity in a specific range.
He helped develop the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases.

August Krönig

August Karl KrönigKrönig
In 1856 August Krönig (probably after reading a paper of Waterston) created a simple gas-kinetic model, which only considered the translational motion of the particles.
August Karl Krönig (20 September 1822 – 5 June 1879) was a German chemist and physicist who published an account of the kinetic theory of gases in 1856, probably after reading a paper by John James Waterston.

Brownian motion

BrownianBrownian movementBrownian particle
Known as Brownian motion, the motion of the pollen or dust results from their collisions with the liquid's molecules.
The confirmation of Einstein's theory constituted empirical progress for the kinetic theory of heat.

Ludwig Boltzmann

BoltzmannLudwig Eduard BoltzmannBoltzmann, L.
In 1871, Ludwig Boltzmann generalized Maxwell's achievement and formulated the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.
Boltzmann received his PhD degree in 1866 working under the supervision of Stefan; his dissertation was on the kinetic theory of gases.

Sydney Chapman (mathematician)

Sydney ChapmanChapmanChapman, S.
An important book on kinetic theory is that by Chapman and Cowling.
His work on the kinetic theory of gases, solar-terrestrial physics, and the Earth's ozone layer has inspired a broad range of research over many decades.

Molecular chaos

molecular chaos hypothesis
The necessary assumptions are the absence of quantum effects, molecular chaos and small gradients in bulk properties.
In the kinetic theory of gases in physics, the molecular chaos hypothesis (also called Stosszahlansatz in the writings of Paul Ehrenfest ) is the assumption that the velocities of colliding particles are uncorrelated, and independent of position.

Mikhail Lomonosov

LomonosovMikhail Vasilyevich LomonosovMikhail V. Lomonosov
Other pioneers of the kinetic theory (which were neglected by their contemporaries) were Mikhail Lomonosov (1747), Georges-Louis Le Sage (ca.
He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, contributed to the formulation of the kinetic theory of gases, and stated the idea of conservation of matter in the following words: "All changes in nature are such that inasmuch is taken from one object insomuch is added to another. So, if the amount of matter decreases in one place, it increases elsewhere. This universal law of nature embraces laws of motion as well, for an object moving others by its own force in fact imparts to another object the force it loses" (first articulated in a letter to Leonhard Euler dated 5 July 1748, rephrased and published in Lomonosov's dissertation "Reflexion on the solidity and fluidity of bodies", 1760).

Gas

gasesgaseousgaseous state
The kinetic theory of gases describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion.
This particle or microscopic view of a gas is described by the kinetic-molecular theory.

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

MaxwellianMaxwell distributionMaxwell-Boltzmann distribution
In 1859, after reading a paper on the diffusion of molecules by Rudolf Clausius, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell formulated the Maxwell distribution of molecular velocities, which gave the proportion of molecules having a certain velocity in a specific range. In 1871, Ludwig Boltzmann generalized Maxwell's achievement and formulated the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.
The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a result of the kinetic theory of gases, which provides a simplified explanation of many fundamental gaseous properties, including pressure and diffusion.

Heat

heat energythermalhot
In this work, Bernoulli posited the argument, still used to this day, that gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, that their impact on a surface causes the gas pressure that we feel, and that what we experience as heat is simply the kinetic energy of their motion.
In the kinetic theory, heat is explained in terms of the microscopic motions and interactions of constituent particles, such as electrons, atoms, and molecules.

Rudolf Clausius

ClausiusRudolf Julius Emanuel ClausiusClausius, Rudolf
In 1859, after reading a paper on the diffusion of molecules by Rudolf Clausius, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell formulated the Maxwell distribution of molecular velocities, which gave the proportion of molecules having a certain velocity in a specific range. In 1857 Rudolf Clausius, according to his own words independently of Krönig, developed a similar, but much more sophisticated version of the theory which included translational and contrary to Krönig also rotational and vibrational molecular motions.
During 1857, Clausius contributed to the field of kinetic theory after refining August Krönig's very simple gas-kinetic model to include translational, rotational and vibrational molecular motions.

Daniel Bernoulli

BernoulliDanielBernoulli, Daniel
In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamica, which laid the basis for the kinetic theory of gases.
In Hydrodynamica (1738) he laid the basis for the kinetic theory of gases, and applied the idea to explain Boyle's law.

Mean free path

cannot travel very fardistance between collisionsdistance that particles can move without colliding with one another
In this same work he introduced the concept of mean free path of a particle.
In kinetic theory the mean free path of a particle, such as a molecule, is the average distance the particle travels between collisions with other moving particles.

Ideal gas law

combined gas lawideal gas equationIdeal gas laws
we may combine it with the ideal gas law
It can also be derived from the microscopic kinetic theory, as was achieved (apparently independently) by August Krönig in 1856 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857.

Marian Smoluchowski

SmoluchowskiMarian v. Smoluchowski
An important turning point was Albert Einstein's (1905) and Marian Smoluchowski's (1906)
Smoluchowski conducted fundamental research on the kinetic theory of matter.

Hydrodynamica

theory of corpuscular pressure
In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamica, which laid the basis for the kinetic theory of gases.
In the tenth chapter, Bernoulli discussed the first model of the kinetic theory of gases.

Einstein relation (kinetic theory)

Einstein relationEinstein–Smoluchowski relationStokes–Einstein equation
The diffusion constant is related to viscosity by the Einstein relation (kinetic theory).
In physics (specifically, the kinetic theory of gases) the Einstein relation (also known as Einstein–Smoluchowski relation ) is a previously unexpected connection revealed independently by William Sutherland in 1904, Albert Einstein in 1905, and by Marian Smoluchowski in 1906 in their works on Brownian motion.

Mechanical explanations of gravitation

mechanical explanation of gravitationCartesianCartesian physics
1780, published 1818), John Herapath (1816) and John James Waterston (1843), which connected their research with the development of mechanical explanations of gravitation.
In 1821, John Herapath tried to apply his co-developed model of the kinetic theory of gases on gravitation.

Probability

probabilisticprobabilitieschance
Also the logarithmic connection between entropy and probability was first stated by him.
Physicists face the same situation in kinetic theory of gases, where the system, while deterministic in principle, is so complex (with the number of molecules typically the order of magnitude of the Avogadro constant 6.02) that only a statistical description of its properties is feasible.

Ideal gas

idealideal gasesideal-gas
The ideal gas model has been explored in both the Newtonian dynamics (as in "kinetic theory") and in quantum mechanics (as a "gas in a box").