Kinetoscope

kinetographKinetophonepeephole viewing of motion picture devicesmovie cameraEdison KinetoscopeKinetoscopeskinetoscopicKomographshot on paper
The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exibition device.wikipedia
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History of film

film historianfilm historyhistory of cinema
The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exibition device.
The Execution of Mary Stuart, produced by the Edison Company for viewing with the Kinetoscope, showed Mary Queen of Scots being executed in full view of the camera.

William Kennedy Dickson

William DicksonWilliam K.L. DicksonWilliam Kennedy Laurie Dickson
A process using roll film first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U.S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince, the concept was also used by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, and subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892.
In March 1889, a second caveat was filed, in which the proposed motion picture device was given a name, the Kinetoscope.

Thomas Edison

EdisonThomas Alva EdisonThomas A. Edison
A process using roll film first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U.S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince, the concept was also used by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, and subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892.
In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope or peep-hole viewer.

Louis Le Prince

Louis Aimé Augustin Le PrinceMan Walking Around A CornerTraffic Crossing Leeds Bridge
A process using roll film first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U.S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince, the concept was also used by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, and subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892.
For the April 1894 commercial exploitation of his personal kinetoscope parlor, Thomas Edison is credited in the US as the inventor of cinema, while in France, the Lumière Brothers are hailed as inventors of the Cinématographe device and for the first commercial exhibition of motion-picture films, in Paris in 1895.

Zoopraxiscope

On February 25, 1888, in Kaust, Kentucky, Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his zoopraxiscope, a device that projected sequential images drawn around the edge of a glass disc, producing the illusion of motion.
The device appears to have been one of the primary inspirations for Thomas Edison and William Kennedy Dickson's Kinetoscope, the first commercial film exhibition system.

Monkeyshines

Monkeyshines, No. 1
The first film made for the Kinetoscope, and apparently the first motion picture ever produced on photographic film in the United States, may have been shot at this time (there is an unresolved debate over whether it was made in June 1889 or November 1890); known as Monkeyshines, No. 1, it shows an employee of the lab in an apparently tongue-in-cheek display of physical dexterity.
Monkeyshines (1889 or 1890) were a series of experimental short silent films made to test the original cylinder format of the Kinetoscope, and are believed to be the first films shot in the United States.

Cinematography

cinematographercinematographiccinema
To govern the intermittent movement of the film in the camera, allowing the strip to stop long enough so each frame could be fully exposed and then advancing it quickly (in about 1/460 of a second) to the next frame, the sprocket wheel that engaged the strip was driven by an escapement disc mechanism—the first practical system for the high-speed stop-and-go film movement that would be the foundation for the next century of cinematography. The first film publicly shown on the system was Blacksmith Scene (aka Blacksmiths); directed by Dickson and shot by Heise, it was produced at the new Edison moviemaking studio, known as the Black Maria.
W. K. L. Dickson, working under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison, was the first to design a successful apparatus, the Kinetograph, patented in 1891.

35 mm film

35 mm35mm35mm film
The filmstrip, based on stock manufactured first by Eastman, and then, from April 1893 onward, by New York's Blair Camera Co., was 35 mm (1 3/8 inches) wide; each vertically sequenced frame bore a rectangular image and four perforations on each side.
With the advent of flexible film, Thomas Edison quickly set out on his invention, the Kinetoscope, which was first shown at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on 9 May 1893.

Edison's Black Maria

Black MariaBlack Maria StudioBlack Mariah
The first film publicly shown on the system was Blacksmith Scene (aka Blacksmiths); directed by Dickson and shot by Heise, it was produced at the new Edison moviemaking studio, known as the Black Maria.
In 1893, the world's first film production studio, the Black Maria, or the cinematographic Theater, was completed on the grounds of Edison's laboratories at West Orange, New Jersey, for the purpose of making film strips for the Kinetoscope.

Blacksmith Scene

The first film publicly shown on the system was Blacksmith Scene (aka Blacksmiths); directed by Dickson and shot by Heise, it was produced at the new Edison moviemaking studio, known as the Black Maria.
It is historically significant as the first Kinetoscope film shown in public exhibition on May 9, 1893 and is the earliest known example of actors performing a role in a film.

Enoch J. Rector

One of the new firms to enter the field was the Kinetoscope Exhibition Company; the firm's partners, brothers Otway and Grey Latham, Otway's friend Enoch Rector, and their employer, Samuel J. Tilden Jr., sought to combine the popularity of the Kinetoscope with that of prizefighting.
He was a partner in Woodville Latham's Kinetoscope Exhibition Company (later the Lambda Company) during the mid-1890s, working with Latham and his sons Otway and Grey, as well as fellow cinema technicians William Kennedy Laurie Dickson and Eugene Lauste.

Herman Casler

According to a report by inventor Herman Casler described as "authoritative" by Hendricks, who personally examined five of the six still-extant first-generation devices, "Just above the film,...a shutter wheel having five spokes and a very small rectangular opening in the rim [rotates] directly over the film. An incandescent lamp...is placed below the film...and the light passes up through the film, shutter opening, and magnifying lens...to the eye of the observer placed at the opening in the top of the case."
Dickson, who at the time was working for Thomas Edison, next proposed that they work on a peephole film viewing device superior to Edison's Kinetoscope machine.

Auguste and Louis Lumière

Lumière brothersLumièreLouis Lumière
In the summer of 1894, it was demonstrated at 20, boulevard Poissonnière in Paris; this was one of the primary inspirations to the Lumière brothers, who would go on to develop the first commercially successful movie projection system.
They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

Eugen Sandow

SandowSandow's Magazine of Physical CultureSandow, the German
The ten films that comprise the first commercial movie program, all shot at the Black Maria, were descriptively titled: Barber Shop, Bertoldi (mouth support) (Ena Bertoldi, a British vaudeville contortionist), Bertoldi (table contortion), Blacksmiths, Roosters (some manner of cock fight), Highland Dance, Horse Shoeing, Sandow (Eugen Sandow, a German strongman managed by Florenz Ziegfeld), Trapeze, and Wrestling.
In 1894, Sandow also appeared in a short Kinetoscope film that was part of the first commercial motion picture exhibition in history.

Sound film

talkietalkiessound
The Kinetophone (aka Phonokinetoscope) was an early attempt by Edison and Dickson to create a sound-film system.
No agreement was reached, but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope, essentially a "peep-show" system, as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph.

The Dickson Experimental Sound Film

KinetophonographDickson Experimental Sound FilmKinetophone (Dickson)
The first known movie made as a test of the Kinetophone was shot at Edison's New Jersey studio in late 1894 or early 1895, which is now referred to as The Dickson Experimental Sound Film; this film, along with a short film from 1913 called Nursery Favorites and a 1912 demonstration film, are the only surviving movies with live-recorded sound made for the Kinetophone.
It is the first known film with live-recorded sound and appears to be the first motion picture made for the Kinetophone, the proto-sound-film system developed by Dickson and Thomas Edison.

Robert W. Paul

Robert PaulR. W. PaulR.W. Paul
Already successfully operating a pair of London movie parlors with Edison Kinetoscopes, they commissioned English inventor and manufacturer Robert W. Paul to make copies of them.
In 1894, he was approached by two Greek businessmen who wanted him to make copies of an Edison Kinetoscope that they had purchased.

World's Columbian Exposition

Chicago World's Fair1893 Chicago World's Fair1893 World's Fair
The premiere of the completed Kinetoscope was held not at the Chicago World's Fair, as originally scheduled, but at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893.
The exposition featured interior and exterior light and displays as well as displays of Thomas Edison's kinetoscope, search lights, a seismograph, electric incubators for chicken eggs, and Morse code telegraph.

Mutoscope

The Mutoscope
Over the course of 1895, it became clear that the Kinetoscope was going to lose out on one end to projected motion pictures and, on the other, to a new "peep show" device, the cheap, flip-book-based Mutoscope.
Like Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope, it did not project on a screen and provided viewing to only one person at a time.

Fred Ott's Sneeze

Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a SneezesneezeEdison Kinetographic Record of a Sneeze
During the first week of January 1894, a five-second film starring an Edison technician was shot at the Black Maria; Fred Ott's Sneeze, as it is now widely known, was made expressly to produce a sequence of images for an article in Harper's magazine.
It was filmed between January 2, 1894 and January 7, 1894 and was displayed, at the time, through the means of a Kinetoscope.

Dickson Greeting

world's first film
The man was Dickson; the little movie, approximately three seconds long, is now referred to as Dickson Greeting.
It was filmed on May 20, 1891 in the Photographic Building at Edison's Black Maria studio, West Orange, New Jersey, in collaboration with Thomas Edison using his kinetograph.

Eugene Augustin Lauste

Eugene Lauste
The Latham brothers and their father, Woodville, had retained the services of former Edison employee Eugene Lauste and then, in April 1895, Dickson himself to develop a film projection system.
Lauste contributed to the development of the leading predecessor to the motion picture projector, the Kinetoscope, an invention for which Edison would claim credit.

Vitascope

EdisonEdison Vitascopefilm projector
The rights to the system had been acquired by Charles and Gammon, who redubbed it the Vitascope and arranged with Edison to present himself as its creator.
The images being cast are originally taken by a kinetoscope mechanism onto gelatin film.

William Friese-Greene

Friese-Greene
William Friese-Greene
On 18 March, Friese-Greene sent a clipping of the story to Thomas Edison, whose laboratory had been developing a motion picture system, with a peephole viewer, christened the Kinetoscope.

Woodville Latham

WoodvilleLathamMajor Woodville Latham
The Latham brothers and their father, Woodville, had retained the services of former Edison employee Eugene Lauste and then, in April 1895, Dickson himself to develop a film projection system.
Woodville Latham was the father of Grey Latham and Otway Latham, owners of a kinetoscope parlor in New York City.