King

kingshipMaiRexroyalRajachiefsroyaltyAlaafinBiblical KingsFreddie King
King, or king regnant, is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.wikipedia
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Queen consort

QueenconsortEmpress consort
The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king, or an empress consort in the case of an emperor.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
King, or king regnant, is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor of China, Emperor of Ethiopia, Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke of Luxembourg), emir (e.g., Emir of Qatar), sultan (e.g., Sultan of Oman), or pharaoh.

Queen regnant

Queenempress regnantqueens regnant
The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king. The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.

Prince

princelyprincessovereign prince
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A prince is a male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family.

Emperor

empressemperorsSamraat
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings.

Duke

DuchessducalDukes
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor, king, and grand duke ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank, below princes of nobility and grand dukes.

Malik

MalekMelikmlk
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Malick, or Melekh is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.

Grand prince

Grand DukeHigh dukeGrand Principality
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
The title grand prince or great prince (magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon, Russian: Великий князь) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince.

Grand duke

Grand Duchessgrand ducalGrand Dukes
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
It is traditionally ranked in order of precedence below the title of emperor, king or archduke and above that of sovereign prince or sovereign duke.

Sultan

SultanateSultansSulṭān
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
The term is distinct from king, despite both referring to a sovereign ruler.

Archduke

ArchduchessArchduchyArchduchess of Austria
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor and King and above that of (debatably) a Grand Duke, Duke and Prince.

Prince consort

King consortconsortThe Prince Consort
The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc. The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A prince consort is the husband of a queen regnant who is not himself a king in his own right.

OverkingRí ruirechking
The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages (*rēks "ruler"; Latin rēx, Sanskrit rājan and Irish ríg, but see Gothic reiks and, e.g., modern German Reich and modern Dutch rijk).
Rí, or commonly ríg (genitive), is an ancient Gaelic word meaning "king".

Tribal chief

chiefchieftainchiefs
The English word is of Germanic origin, and historically refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship.
This term has largely fallen out of use, however, and such personages are now often called kings.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire (centered on the nominal kingdoms of Germany and Italy).
The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains.

Archon

archonsarchōnarchont
In Roman terms, archontes ruled by imperium, whereas basileis ("kings") had auctoritas.

Raja

RajahRaja BahadurRao
The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages (*rēks "ruler"; Latin rēx, Sanskrit rājan and Irish ríg, but see Gothic reiks and, e.g., modern German Reich and modern Dutch rijk).
Raja (also spelled Rajah, from Sanskrit राजन् ), is a title for a monarch equivalent to king or princely ruler in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

Germanic kingship

kingGermanic kingchieftain
The English word is of Germanic origin, and historically refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings, partly influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
Germanic kingship is a thesis regarding the role of kings (called Konungrs) among the pre-Christianized Germanic tribes of the Migration period (c.

Heptarchy

Anglo-Saxon kingdomsAnglo-Saxon kingsAnglo-Saxon kingdom
In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, and the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England (sometimes referred to as petty kingdoms) from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.

King of Rome

Kings of RomekingsRoman King
The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages (*rēks "ruler"; Latin rēx, Sanskrit rājan and Irish ríg, but see Gothic reiks and, e.g., modern German Reich and modern Dutch rijk).
The supreme power of the state was vested in the rex, whose position gave the following powers:

Kingdom of Serbia (medieval)

Kingdom of SerbiaSerbian KingdomSerbia
The coronation of Stefan Nemanjić in 1217 was not unheard of in Serbian history, since there had already been a long tradition of kingship among previous Serbian rulers centered in Duklja (11th century).

Basileus

EmperorbasilissaBasilius
Consequently, the title acquired the connotation of "emperor", and when barbarian kingdoms emerged on the ruins of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, their rulers were referred to in Greek not as basileus but as rēx or rēgas, the hellenized forms of the Latin title rex, king.

Divine right of kings

divine rightdivine right to rulecame from God
The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings, partly influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
Before the Reformation the anointed king was, within his realm, the accredited vicar of God for secular purposes (see the Investiture Controversy); after the Reformation he (or she if queen regnant) became this in Protestant states for religious purposes also.

Kingdom of Dalmatia

DalmatiaDalmatianAustrian Dalmatia
The Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empires technically contained various kingdoms (Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Illyria, Lombardy–Venetia and Galicia and Lodomeria, as well as the Kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia which were themselves subordinate titles to the Hungarian Kingdom and which were merged as Croatia-Slavonia in 1868), but the emperor and the respective kings were the same person.

Kingdom of Illyria

IllyriaIllyrian KingdomAustrian Kingdom of Illyria
The Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empires technically contained various kingdoms (Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Illyria, Lombardy–Venetia and Galicia and Lodomeria, as well as the Kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia which were themselves subordinate titles to the Hungarian Kingdom and which were merged as Croatia-Slavonia in 1868), but the emperor and the respective kings were the same person.