A report on Kingdom (biology)

Haeckel's original (1866) conception of the three kingdoms of life, including the new kingdom Protista. Notice the inclusion of the cyanobacterium Nostoc with plants.
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships depicted by Alastair Simpson

Second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

- Kingdom (biology)
Haeckel's original (1866) conception of the three kingdoms of life, including the new kingdom Protista. Notice the inclusion of the cyanobacterium Nostoc with plants.

28 related topics with Alpha

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Description of rare animals (写生珍禽图), by Song dynasty painter Huang Quan (903–965)

Taxonomy (biology)

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Scientific study of naming, defining and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics.

Scientific study of naming, defining and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics.

Description of rare animals (写生珍禽图), by Song dynasty painter Huang Quan (903–965)
Title page of Systema Naturae, Leiden, 1735
Evolution of the vertebrates at class level, width of spindles indicating number of families. Spindle diagrams are typical for evolutionary taxonomy
The same relationship, expressed as a cladogram typical for cladistics
The basic scheme of modern classification. Many other levels can be used; domain, the highest level within life, is both new and disputed.
Type specimen for Nepenthes smilesii, a tropical pitcher plant
A comparison of phylogenetic and phenetic (character-based) concepts

The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.

Fungus

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Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

Fungal cell cycle showing Dikaryons typical of Higher Fungi
Omphalotus nidiformis, a bioluminescent mushroom
Bracket fungi on a tree stump
In 1729, Pier Antonio Micheli first published descriptions of fungi.
Armillaria solidipes
Mold growth covering a decaying peach. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart over a period of six days.
Polyporus squamosus
The 8-spore asci of Morchella elata, viewed with phase contrast microscopy
The bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus
Prototaxites milwaukeensis (Penhallow, 1908)—a Middle Devonian fungus from Wisconsin
Main groups of fungi
Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules.
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
A pin mold decomposing a peach
The dark filaments are hyphae of the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala in the intercellular spaces of tall fescue leaf sheath tissue
The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, a symbiosis of fungal, algal, and cyanobacterial species
The plant pathogen Puccinia magellanicum (calafate rust) causes the defect known as witch's broom, seen here on a barberry shrub in Chile.
Gram stain of Candida albicans from a vaginal swab from a woman with candidiasis, showing hyphae, and chlamydospores, which are 2–4 µm in diameter.
Ergotamine, a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells shown with DIC microscopy
The mold Penicillium rubens was the source of penicillin G.
A selection of edible mushrooms eaten in Asia
Stilton cheese veined with Penicillium roqueforti
Amanita phalloides accounts for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. It sometimes lacks the greenish color seen here.
Grasshoppers killed by Beauveria bassiana

These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separately from the other eukaryotic kingdoms, which by one traditional classification include Plantae, Animalia, Protozoa, and Chromista.

Protist

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Any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.

Any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.

Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing the origins of eukaryotes
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The classification of a third kingdom separate from animals and plants was first proposed by John Hogg in 1860 as the kingdom Protoctista; in 1866 Ernst Haeckel also proposed a third kingdom Protista as "the kingdom of primitive forms".

Phylum

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class.

Archaea

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Archaea (singular archaeon ) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

Archaea (singular archaeon ) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

Archaea were found in volcanic hot springs. Pictured here is Grand Prismatic Spring of Yellowstone National Park.
The ARMAN are a group of archaea recently discovered in acid mine drainage.
Membrane structures. Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a bacterial or eukaryotic phospholipid: 5, fatty acid chains; 6, ester linkages; 7, D-glycerol moiety; 8, phosphate group. Bottom: 9, lipid bilayer of bacteria and eukaryotes; 10, lipid monolayer of some archaea.
Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarum. The retinol cofactor and residues involved in proton transfer are shown as ball-and-stick models.
Sulfolobus infected with the DNA virus STSV1. Bar is 1 micrometer.
Archaea that grow in the hot water of the Morning Glory Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park produce a bright colour
Methanogenic archaea form a symbiosis with termites.

Archaea were initially classified as bacteria, receiving the name archaebacteria (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this term has fallen out of use.

The major ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, applied to the red fox, Vulpes vulpes.

Taxonomic rank

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Relative level of a group of organisms in a taxonomic hierarchy.

Relative level of a group of organisms in a taxonomic hierarchy.

The major ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, applied to the red fox, Vulpes vulpes.

Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc.

Eukaryote

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

The endomembrane system and its components
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion
Longitudinal section through the flagellum of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Structure of a typical animal cell
Structure of a typical plant cell
Fungal Hyphae cells: 1 – hyphal wall, 2 – septum, 3 – mitochondrion, 4 – vacuole, 5 – ergosterol crystal, 6 – ribosome, 7 – nucleus, 8 – endoplasmic reticulum, 9 – lipid body, 10 – plasma membrane, 11 – spitzenkörper, 12 – Golgi apparatus
This diagram illustrates the twofold cost of sex. If each individual were to contribute the same number of offspring (two), (a) the sexual population remains the same size each generation, where the (b) asexual population doubles in size each generation.
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing a view of the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships – the Opisthokonta group includes both animals (Metazoa) and fungi, plants (Plantae) are placed in Archaeplastida.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species (except for Excavata), together with a tree showing possible relationships between the groups
The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis
Phylogenetic tree showing a possible relationship between the eukaryotes and other forms of life; eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue
Eocyte tree.
Diagram of the origin of life with the Eukaryotes appearing early, not derived from Prokaryotes, as proposed by Richard Egel in 2012. This view implies that the UCA was relatively large and complex.

A classification produced in 2005 for the International Society of Protistologists, which reflected the consensus of the time, divided the eukaryotes into six supposedly monophyletic 'supergroups'.

Clockwise from top left: Blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; Giardia muris, a parasitic flagellate; Centropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; Peridinium willei, a dinoflagellate; Chaos carolinense, a naked amoebozoan; Desmarella moniliformis, a choanoflagellate

Protozoa

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Informal term for a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

Informal term for a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

Clockwise from top left: Blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; Giardia muris, a parasitic flagellate; Centropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; Peridinium willei, a dinoflagellate; Chaos carolinense, a naked amoebozoan; Desmarella moniliformis, a choanoflagellate
Class Protozoa, order Infusoria, family Monades by Georg August Goldfuss, c. 1844
John Hogg's illustration of the Four Kingdoms of Nature, showing "Primigenal" as a greenish haze at the base of the Animals and Plants, 1860
The ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum can attain 3 mm in length
Isotricha intestinalis, a ciliate present in the rumen of sheep.
Paramecium bursaria, is one example of a variety of freshwater ciliates that host endosymbiont chlorophyte algae from the genus Chlorella
Resting cyst of ciliated protozoan Dileptus viridis.
Life cycle of parasitic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii
Trophozoites of the amoebic dysentery pathogen Entamoeba histolytica with ingested human red blood cells (dark circles)

In later classification schemes it was elevated to a variety of higher ranks, including phylum, subkingdom and kingdom, and sometimes included within Protoctista or Protista.

The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis (Two domains tree), 2008.

Domain (biology)

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Highest taxonomic rank of all organisms taken together.

Highest taxonomic rank of all organisms taken together.

The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis (Two domains tree), 2008.
Phylogenetic tree showing the relationship between the eukaryotes and other forms of life, 2006 Eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green, and bacteria blue.

Members of the domain Eukarya—called eukaryotes—have membrane-bound organelles (including a nucleus containing genetic material) and are represented by five kingdoms: Plantae, Protozoa, Animalia, Chromista, and Fungi.

Animals are unique in having the ball of cells of the early embryo (1) develop into a hollow ball or blastula (2).

Animal

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Animals are unique in having the ball of cells of the early embryo (1) develop into a hollow ball or blastula (2).
Sexual reproduction is nearly universal in animals, such as these dragonflies.
Predators, such as this ultramarine flycatcher (Ficedula superciliaris), feed on other animals.
Hydrothermal vent mussels and shrimps
The blue whale is the largest animal that has ever lived.
Dickinsonia costata from the Ediacaran biota (c. 635–542 MYA) is one of the earliest animal species known.
Anomalocaris canadensis is one of the many animal species that emerged in the Cambrian explosion, starting some 539 million years ago, and found in the fossil beds of the Burgess shale.
Non-bilaterians include sponges (centre) and corals (background).
Idealised bilaterian body plan. With an elongated body and a direction of movement the animal has head and tail ends. Sense organs and mouth form the basis of the head. Opposed circular and longitudinal muscles enable peristaltic motion.
The bilaterian gut develops in two ways. In many protostomes, the blastopore develops into the mouth, while in deuterostomes it becomes the anus.
Ecdysis: a dragonfly has emerged from its dry exuviae and is expanding its wings. Like other arthropods, its body is divided into segments.
Spiral cleavage in a sea snail embryo
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck led the creation of a modern classification of invertebrates, breaking up Linnaeus's "Vermes" into 9 phyla by 1809.
Sides of beef in a slaughterhouse
A gun dog retrieving a duck during a hunt
Artistic vision: Still Life with Lobster and Oysters by Alexander Coosemans, c. 1660
Auroralumina attenboroughii, an Ediacaran predator (c. 560 mya)

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms in the biological kingdom Animalia.