Kingdom (biology)

kingdomkingdomssubkingdombiological kingdomfive-kingdom systemFive KingdomFive kingdom classificationfive-kingdomKingdoms of lifesix-kingdom system
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.wikipedia
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Phylum

phyladivisionsuperphylum
Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class.

Taxonomic rank

superfamilysuperfamiliesrank
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc.

Protist

ProtistaprotistsProtoctista
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera).
In some systems of biological classification, such as the popular five-kingdom scheme proposed by Robert Whittaker in 1969, the protists make up a kingdom called Protista, composed of "organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues".

Monera

Blue-green algaelower organismsMoneres
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera).
Monera (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria.

Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera). Thomas Cavalier-Smith thought at first, as was almost the consensus at that time, that the difference between eubacteria and archaebacteria was so great (particularly considering the genetic distance of ribosomal genes) that they needed to be separated into two different kingdoms, hence splitting the empire Bacteria into two kingdoms.
They called these groups the Urkingdoms of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria, though other researchers treated them as kingdoms or subkingdoms.

Class (biology)

classsubclassclasses
When Carl Linnaeus introduced the rank-based system of nomenclature into biology in 1735, the highest rank was given the name "kingdom" and was followed by four other main or principal ranks: class, order, genus and species.
Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order.

Order (biology)

ordersuborderorders
When Carl Linnaeus introduced the rank-based system of nomenclature into biology in 1735, the highest rank was given the name "kingdom" and was followed by four other main or principal ranks: class, order, genus and species.
Carl Linnaeus was the first to apply it consistently to the division of all three kingdoms of nature (minerals, plants, and animals) in his Systema Naturae (1735, 1st.

Opisthokont

Opisthokontaopisthokontsboth fungal and mammalian cells
In this system the multicellular animals (Metazoa) are descended from the same ancestor as both the unicellular choanoflagellates and the fungi which form the Opisthokonta.
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Domain; Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species.

Plant

Plantaeplantsflora
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera). Technological advances in electron microscopy allowed the separation of the Chromista from the Plantae kingdom. This superkingdom was opposed to the Metakaryota superkingdom, grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms (Animalia, Protozoa, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista).
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Domain (biology)

domaindomainsdomains of life
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Members of the domain Eukarya—called eukaryotes—have membrane-bound organelles (including a nucleus containing genetic material) and are represented by five kingdoms: Plantae, Protista, Animalia, Chromista, and Fungi.

Clade

cladesgroupcladistic
, there is widespread agreement that the Rhizaria belong with the Stramenopiles and the Alveolata, in a clade dubbed the SAR supergroup, so that Rhizaria is not one of the main eukaryote groups.
The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further.

Fungus

Fungifungalnecrotrophic
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera). Robert Whittaker recognized an additional kingdom for the Fungi. This superkingdom was opposed to the Metakaryota superkingdom, grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms (Animalia, Protozoa, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista).
These organisms are classified as a kingdom, fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals.

Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Carl von Linné
When Carl Linnaeus introduced the rank-based system of nomenclature into biology in 1735, the highest rank was given the name "kingdom" and was followed by four other main or principal ranks: class, order, genus and species.
The Linnaean system classified nature within a nested hierarchy, starting with three kingdoms.

Robert Whittaker

WhittakerRobert H. WhittakerR. H. Whittaker
Robert Whittaker recognized an additional kingdom for the Fungi.
He was the first to propose the five kingdom taxonomic classification of the world's biota into the Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera in 1969.

Lynn Margulis

MargulisDr. Lynn MargulisLyn Margulis
In other systems, such as Lynn Margulis's system of five kingdoms—animals, plants, bacteria (prokaryotes), fungi, and protoctists—the plants included just the land plants (Embryophyta).
Margulis was also the co-developer of the Gaia hypothesis with the British chemist James Lovelock, proposing that the Earth functions as a single self-regulating system, and was the principal defender and promulgator of the five kingdom classification of Robert Whittaker.

Herbert Copeland

CopelandH.F.Copel.Herbert F. Copeland
In 1938, Herbert F. Copeland proposed a four-kingdom classification, elevating the protist classes of bacteria (Monera) and blue-green algae (Phycochromacea) to phyla in the novel Kingdom Monera.
Herbert Faulkner Copeland (May 21, 1902 – October 15, 1968) was an American biologist who contributed to the theory of biological kingdoms.

Thomas Cavalier-Smith

Cavalier-SmithTom Cavalier-SmithCaval.-Sm.
Thomas Cavalier-Smith thought at first, as was almost the consensus at that time, that the difference between eubacteria and archaebacteria was so great (particularly considering the genetic distance of ribosomal genes) that they needed to be separated into two different kingdoms, hence splitting the empire Bacteria into two kingdoms.
His research has led to discovery of a number of unicellular organisms (protists) and definition of taxonomic positions, such as introduction of the kingdom Chromista, and other groups including Chromalveolata, Opisthokonta, Rhizaria, and Excavata.

Chromista

chromistchromist algae
Technological advances in electron microscopy allowed the separation of the Chromista from the Plantae kingdom. This superkingdom was opposed to the Metakaryota superkingdom, grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms (Animalia, Protozoa, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista).
Chromista is a eukaryotic kingdom, probably polyphyletic.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
When Carl Linnaeus introduced the rank-based system of nomenclature into biology in 1735, the highest rank was given the name "kingdom" and was followed by four other main or principal ranks: class, order, genus and species.

Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera). In this system the multicellular animals (Metazoa) are descended from the same ancestor as both the unicellular choanoflagellates and the fungi which form the Opisthokonta. This superkingdom was opposed to the Metakaryota superkingdom, grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms (Animalia, Protozoa, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

Archezoa

Archezoa hypothesis
As a result, these amitochondriate protists were separated from the protist kingdom, giving rise to the, at the same time, superkingdom and kingdom Archezoa.
Archezoa was a kingdom proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith for eukaryotes that diverged before the origin of mitochondria.

Protozoa

protozoanprotozoanspellicle
This superkingdom was opposed to the Metakaryota superkingdom, grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms (Animalia, Protozoa, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista).
When first introduced in 1818, Protozoa was erected as a taxonomic class, but in later classification schemes it was elevated to a variety of higher ranks, including phylum, subkingdom and kingdom.

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
In 2004, a review article by Simpson and Roger noted that the Protista were "a grab-bag for all eukaryotes that are not animals, plants or fungi".
A classification produced in 2005 for the International Society of Protistologists, which reflected the consensus of the time, divided the eukaryotes into six supposedly monophyletic 'supergroups'.