Kingdom of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianKing of BavariaRoyal BavarianBavarianskingdomBavarian kingdomQueen of BavariaBavarian courtBavarian Prince
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern; Kinereich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.wikipedia
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Electorate of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianElectorate
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern; Kinereich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

Maximilian IMaximilian I JosephMaximilian Joseph
The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. Maximilian IV Joseph (of Zweibrücken), the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance.
Maximilian I Joseph (Maximilian I. Joseph; 27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.

Würzburg

Würzburg, GermanyHeidingsfeldWurzburg
Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg.
The city was the site of several Imperial Diets, including the one of 1180, at which Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was banned for three years from the Empire and his duchy Bavaria was handed over to Otto of Wittelsbach.

Unification of Germany

German unificationunificationunified Germany
With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia.
They ranged in size from the small and complex territories of the princely Hohenlohe family branches to sizable, well-defined territories such as the Kingdoms of Bavaria and Prussia.

Treaty of Ried

Bavaria's switching of sidesformer ally Bavaria
With the Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status.
The Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 was a treaty that was signed between the Kingdom of Bavaria and Austrian Empire.

House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld

Palatinate-BirkenfeldZweibrücken-BirkenfeldHouse of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
Maximilian IV Joseph (of Zweibrücken), the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance.
All living members of the House of Wittelsbach descend from Palatinate-Birkenfeld, which thus became the parent branch of the Kings of Bavaria.

Treaty of Munich (1816)

Treaty of Munichtreaty1816
Finally, in 1816, the Rhenish Palatinate was taken from France in exchange for most of Salzburg which was then ceded to Austria (Treaty of Munich (1816)).
The Treaty of Munich (German Vertrag von München) of 14 April 1816 normalized relations between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Bavaria through several territorial exchanges.

Aschaffenburg

Aschaffenburg, GermanyAschaffenbergAschaffenburg, Kreisfreie Stadt
Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg.
In 1814 the town was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria by an Austrian-Bavarian treaty.

Otto of Greece

OttoKing OttoOtto I
In foreign affairs under Ludwig's rule, Bavaria supported the Greeks during the Greek War of Independence with his second son, Otto being elected King of Greece in 1832.
Otto (Όθων, Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.

Landtag of Bavaria

Bavarian LandtagBavarian ParliamentLandtag
The constitution established a bicameral Parliament (Landtag).
The Landtag of Bavaria was founded in 1818, in the Kingdom of Bavaria.

House of Wittelsbach

WittelsbachWittelsbach dynastyWittelsbachs
The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph.
The new king still served as a Prince-elector until the Kingdom of Bavaria left the Holy Roman Empire (1 August 1806).

Hambach Festival

Hambacher FestgatheringsHambacher Schloss
The Hambacher Fest in 1832 showed the discontent of the population with high taxes and censorship.
At the time of the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Hambach Castle with the historic Palatinate region on the west bank of the Rhine was part of the Kingdom of Bavaria.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg.
On 9 April 1809, an Austrian force of 170,000 men attacked Bavaria.

List of kings of Greece

King of the HellenesKing of GreeceKing
In foreign affairs under Ludwig's rule, Bavaria supported the Greeks during the Greek War of Independence with his second son, Otto being elected King of Greece in 1832.
Negotiations between the three Great Powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince.

Frankfurt Parliament

Frankfurt National AssemblyNational AssemblyFrankfurt Assembly
Maximilian II responded to the demands of the people for a united German state by attending the Frankfurt Assembly, which intended to create such a state.
The Diet voted to extend the Fortresses of the German Confederation (Bundesfestungen) at Mainz, Ulm, and Rastatt, while the Kingdom of Bavaria developed the fortress at Germersheim.

County of Tyrol

TyrolTyroleanTirol
Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg.
Following defeat by Napoleon in 1805, Austria was forced to cede Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria in the Peace of Pressburg.

Bavarian Army

Royal Bavarian ArmyBavarianarmy
The Bavarian Army was sent under the command of the Prussian crown prince against the French army.
The Bavarian Army was the army of the Electorate (1682–1806) and then Kingdom (1806–1919) of Bavaria.

War of the Sixth Coalition

Sixth CoalitionWar of LiberationSecond War against Napoleon
With the Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status.
The Confederation of the Rhine furnished Napoleon with the bulk of the remainder of the forces, with Saxony and Bavaria as principal contributors.

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
In 1870, war erupted between France and Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War.
Some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked the French into declaring war on Prussia in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and merely exploited the circumstances as they unfolded.

Lower Franconia

UnterfrankenLowerNorth-west Bavaria
The Bavarian army was defeated in Lower Franconia at the Battle of Kissingen (10 July 1866).
After the founding of the Kingdom of Bavaria the state was totally reorganised and, in 1808, divided into 15 administrative government regions (German: Regierungsbezirke, singular Regierungsbezirk), in Bavaria called Kreise (singular: Kreis).

German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman states
Attempts by Prussia to reorganize the loose and un-led German Confederation were opposed by Bavaria and Austria, with Bavaria taking part in its own discussions with Austria and other allies in 1863, in Frankfurt, without Prussia and its allies attending.
Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.

Ludwig II of Bavaria

Ludwig IIKing Ludwig IIKing Ludwig II of Bavaria
In 1864, Maximilian II died early, and his eighteen-year-old son, Ludwig II, became King of Bavaria as tensions between Austria and Prussia escalated steadily.
Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; Louis Otto Frederick William; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886.

Zweibrücken

ZWE 1Deux-PontsZweibrücken, Germany
By the Treaty of Lunéville (9 February 1801), Bavaria lost the Palatinate and the duchies of Zweibrücken and Jülich.
The town of Zweibrücken became part of the Palatine region of the Kingdom of Bavaria.

Kingdom of Hanover

HanoverHanoverianKingdom of Hannover
Prussia quickly defeated the Kingdom of Hanover, then won the Battle of Königgrätz (3 July 1866) against Austria, which was totally defeated by Prussia shortly afterward.
The new kingdom was also greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation (behind Prussia, Austria and Bavaria) and the second-largest in north Germany.

North German Confederation

North German FederationGermanyState
With Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the northern German states quickly unified into the North German Confederation, with the Prussian king leading the state.
In 1870–1871, the south German states of Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Württemberg and Bavaria joined the country.