Kingdom of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianBohemian KingdomKing of BohemiaBohemian CrownRoyal BohemiaBohemian (Czech) KingdomCzechBohemian Catholic nobilityBohemian kings
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.wikipedia
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Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy; and became the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198, reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire.
The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added.

Bohemia

BohemianBöhmenAustrian Bohemia
The kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia, also ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, and parts of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria.
Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, later an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire.

History of the Czech lands

History of the Czech RepublicCzech historyhistory
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
Up until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the First World War, the lands were known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown and formed a constituent state of that empire: the Kingdom of Bohemia (in Czech: "Království české", the word "Bohemia" is a Latin term for Čechy).

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Bohemian CrownCrown of BohemiaBohemia
The kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia, also ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, and parts of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria.
The crown lands primarily consisted of the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of 1356, the Margraviate of Moravia, the Duchies of Silesia, and the two Lusatias, known as the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia and the Margraviate of Lower Lusatia, as well as other territories throughout its history.

Přemyslid dynasty

PřemyslidPřemyslidsPremyslid dynasty
The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and since 1526 by the House of Habsburg and its successor house Habsburg-Lorraine.
The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.

House of Habsburg

HabsburgHabsburgsHabsburg dynasty
The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and since 1526 by the House of Habsburg and its successor house Habsburg-Lorraine.
The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy.

Prague

Prague, Czech RepublicPrague, CzechoslovakiaPraha
Numerous kings of Bohemia were also elected Holy Roman Emperors and the capital Prague was the imperial seat in the late 14th century, and at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries.
Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV (r.

Bohemian Revolt

Bohemia and MoraviaBohemian periodBohemians rebelled
The Czech language (called the Bohemian language in English usage until the 19th century) was the main language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627 (after the Bohemian Revolt was suppressed).
The Bohemian Revolt (Böhmischer Aufstand; České stavovské povstání; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.

Czech lands in the High Middle Ages

medieval
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
As a result of political agreements with both Roman Emperors (Philip of Swabia and Otto IV of Brunswick), he was able to renew the royal peerage for Bohemian kings, confirmed by Pope Innocent III in 1204.

Duchy of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianHistory of the Czech lands in the Middle Ages
The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and since 1526 by the House of Habsburg and its successor house Habsburg-Lorraine. It was officially recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status.
The Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a hereditary Kingdom of Bohemia, when Duke Ottokar I ensured his elevation by the German king Philip of Swabia in 1198.

Golden Bull of Sicily

1198hereditary elevation of his title to kingheredity of the royal title established in 1212
It was officially recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status.
The kingship signified the exceptional status of Bohemia within the Holy Roman Empire.

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolish
At the same time, the Mongol invasions (1220–42) absorbed the attention of Bohemia's eastern neighbors, Hungary and Poland.
Poland even came under the influence of the Přemyslid kings of Bohemia, whose dynasty died out before they could gain a stable foothold in Poland.

Wenceslaus I of Bohemia

Wenceslaus IWenceslaus I, King of BohemiaKing Wenceslaus I
The king's successor was his son Wenceslaus I, from his second marriage.
On 6 February 1228, Wenceslaus was crowned as co-ruler of the Kingdom of Bohemia with his father.

Kaliningrad

KönigsbergKaliningrad, RussiaKrólewiec
He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the pagan natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech, which later became Königsberg (now Kaliningrad).
The new settlement was named in honour of the Bohemian King Ottokar II.

Battle on the Marchfeld

Battle of MarchfeldBattle of Dürnkrut and JedenspeigenDürnkrut
All of Ottokar's German possessions were lost in 1276, and in 1278 he was abandoned by part of the Czech nobility and died in the Battle on the Marchfeld against Rudolf.
The opponents were a Bohemian (Czech) army led by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia and the German army under the German king Rudolph I of Habsburg in alliance with King Ladislaus IV of Hungary.

Limburg-Luxemburg dynasty

House of LuxembourgLuxembourgLuxembourg dynasty
The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and since 1526 by the House of Habsburg and its successor house Habsburg-Lorraine.
Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties.

Central Powers

Central PowerCentralenemy
Following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved.
Austrian Cisleithania contained various duchies and principalities but also the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.

Ottokar II of Bohemia

Ottokar IIPřemysl Otakar IIOtakar II of Bohemia
Přemysl Ottokar II (1253–78) married a German princess, Margaret of Babenberg, and became duke of Austria.
Named after his grandfather King Přemysl Ottokar I, he was originally educated for the role of an ecclesiastical administrator, while his elder brother Vladislaus was designated heir of the Bohemian kingdom.

Battle of Kressenbrunn

War of StyriaBattle on Moravian FieldKressenbrunn
In 1260, Ottokar defeated Hungary in the Battle of Kressenbrunn, where more than 200,000 men clashed.
The Battle of Kressenbrunn was fought in July 1260 near Groissenbrunn in Lower Austria between the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary for the possession of the duchies of Austria and Styria.

Bohemian Reformation

Czech ReformationHussite ReformationProtestant
As a religious reform movement (the so-called Bohemian Reformation), it represented a challenge to papal authority and an assertion of national autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs.
The Bohemian Reformation (also known as the Czech Reformation or Hussite Reformation), preceding the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, was a Christian movement in the late medieval and early modern Kingdom and Crown of Bohemia (mostly what is now present-day Czech Republic, Silesia and Lusatia) striving for a reform of the Roman Catholic Church.

Imperial Estate

Imperial StateStateImperial Estates
It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire.

Königsberg

Königsberg in PrussiaKönigsberg, PrussiaKöningsberg
He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the pagan natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech, which later became Königsberg (now Kaliningrad).
This name meant "King’s Hill" (castrum Koningsberg, Mons Regius, Regiomontium), honouring King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who paid for the erection of the first fortress there during the Prussian Crusade.

Duchy of Styria

StyriaStyrianDuke of Styria
He thereby acquired Upper Austria, Lower Austria, and part of Styria.
It passed quickly through the hands of Hungary in 1254, until the Bohemian king Ottokar II Přemysl conquered it, being victorious at the 1260 Battle of Kressenbrunn.

Hussites

HussiteHussitismHussite movement
The Hussite movement (1402–85) was primarily a religious, as well as national, manifestation.
The Hussite movement began in the Kingdom of Bohemia and quickly spread throughout the remaining Lands of the Bohemian Crown, including Moravia and Silesia.