Kingdom of Germany

GermanyGermanGerman kingdomGerman kingKing of GermanyGermansEast FranciaGerman Middle AgesKings of GermanyEast Frankish Kingdom
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicorum "Kingdom of the Teutonics/Germans", Regnum Teutonicum "Teutonic Kingdom" ) developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries.wikipedia
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East Francia

East FrankishEast Frankish KingdomEastern Francia
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicorum "Kingdom of the Teutonics/Germans", Regnum Teutonicum "Teutonic Kingdom" ) developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries. East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective.
The east–west division, enforced by the German-Latin language split, "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms", with East Francia becoming the Kingdom of Germany and West Francia the Kingdom of France.

Stem duchy

stem duchiesduchiesstem-duchy
The initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies, who generally chose one of their own.
A stem duchy (Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy; it later included Bohemia (after 1004) and Burgundy (after 1032).
The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

ItalyKingdom of ItalyItalian
After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy; it later included Bohemia (after 1004) and Burgundy (after 1032).
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia, German: Königreich Italien), also commonly Imperial Italy (German: Reichsitalien) or Kingdom of Lombardy, was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

King of the Romans

King of the GermansKingRex Romanorum
The term rex teutonicorum ("king of the Germans") first came into use in Italy around the year 1000.
The territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum (Latinised from Old High German diutisc) by contemporary sources until the 11th century.

Treaty of Verdun

Partition of VerdunTreaties of VerdunVerdun
East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective.

Austrasia

King of AustrasiaAustrasianAustrasian Franks
It was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum.
After this period of unification, the now larger Frankish empire was once again divided between eastern and western sub-kingdoms, with the new version of the eastern kingdom eventually becoming the foundation of the Kingdom of Germany.

Philip of Swabia

PhilipPhilipp of SwabiaPhilip, Duke of Swabia
The reign was dated to begin either on the day of election (Philip of Swabia, Rudolf of Habsburg) or the day of the coronation (Otto IV, Henry VII, Louis IV, Charles IV).
While staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperor's sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany.

Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria

Arnulf of BavariaArnulf the BadArnulf
An entry in the Annales Iuvavenses (or Salzburg Annals) for the year 919, roughly contemporary but surviving only in a twelfth-century copy, records that Baiuarii sponte se reddiderunt Arnolfo duci et regnare ei fecerunt in regno teutonicorum, i.e. that "Arnulf, Duke of the Bavarians, was elected to reign in the Kingdom of the Germans". Even after the death of Conrad in 918, when the election of Henry the Fowler was disputed, his rival, Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, did not establish a separate kingdom but claimed the whole, before being forced by Henry to submit to royal authority.
Having re-established the stem duchy of Bavaria, he eventually negotiated a truce with the Hungarian princes, who thereafter largely passed through Bavaria on their raids into other German duchies.

Duchy of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianDukes of Bavaria
Early among these were Saxony and Bavaria, which had been conquered by Charlemagne. Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia and Lotharingia.
It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.

Duchy of Franconia

FranconiaFranconianDuke of Franconia
Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia and Lotharingia.
The Duchy of Franconia (Herzogtum Franken) was one of the five stem duchies of East Francia and the medieval Kingdom of Germany emerging in the early 10th century.

Duchy of Swabia

SwabiaSwabianDuke of Swabia
Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia and Lotharingia.
The Duchy of Swabia (German: Herzogtum Schwaben) was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom.

Treaty of Meerssen

Treaty of MeersenTreaty of Mersen870
Lothair II of Lotharingia died in 869 and the Treaty of Meerssen (870) divided his kingdom between East and West Francia, but the West Frankish sovereigns relinquished their rightful portion to East Francia by the Treaty of Ribemont in 880.
Louis the German († 876), the second born son, received East Francia (which would evolve into the Kingdom of Germany)

Duchy of Lorraine

LorraineDuchy of Upper LorraineUpper Lorraine
The Lotharingian nobility tried to preserve their independence of East of West Frankish rule by switching allegiance at will with the death of king Louis the Child in 911, but in 925 Lotharingia was finally ceded to East Francia by Rudolph of West Francia and it thereafter formed the Duchy of Lorraine within the East Frankish kingdom.
After the East Frankish Carolingians became extinct with the death of Louis the Child in 911, Lotharingia once again attached itself to West Francia, but was conquered by the German king Henry the Fowler in 925.

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto IOtto the GreatEmperor Otto I
After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy; it later included Bohemia (after 1004) and Burgundy (after 1032).
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.

Annales iuvavenses

Annals of SalzburgAnnales ex Annalibus IuvavensibusSalzburg Annals
An entry in the Annales Iuvavenses (or Salzburg Annals) for the year 919, roughly contemporary but surviving only in a twelfth-century copy, records that Baiuarii sponte se reddiderunt Arnolfo duci et regnare ei fecerunt in regno teutonicorum, i.e. that "Arnulf, Duke of the Bavarians, was elected to reign in the Kingdom of the Germans".
This provides some of the only evidence for the concept of a "Kingdom of Germany" before the late 11th century, but it may be a 12th-century interpolation, as most scholars perceive it to be.

Henry the Fowler

Henry IHenry I of GermanyHenry I the Fowler
Even after the death of Conrad in 918, when the election of Henry the Fowler was disputed, his rival, Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, did not establish a separate kingdom but claimed the whole, before being forced by Henry to submit to royal authority.
As the first non-Frankish king of East Francia, he established the Ottonian dynasty of kings and emperors, and he is generally considered to be the founder of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia.

Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor

Conrad IIEmperor Conrad IIKonrad II
In 1028, after his coronation as Emperor in 1027, Conrad II had his son, Henry III, elected King of Germany by the prince electors.
Conrad extended his power beyond his inherited lands, receiving the favor of the princes of the Kingdom of Germany.

List of German monarchs

King of GermanyGerman KingKing of East Francia
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over East Francia, and the Kingdom of Germany (Regnum Teutonicum), from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.

Louis the German

LouisLudwig the GermanKing Louis the German
East Francia was itself divided into three parts at the death of Louis the German (875).
Louis may be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile.

Duchy of Thuringia

ThuringiaLandgraviate of ThuringiaThuringian
Thuringia, while one of the "old stem duchies", is not counted among the young stem duchies because it had been absorbed into Saxony in 908, before the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire.
A separate Thuringian stem duchy did not exist during the emergence of the German kingdom from East Francia in the 10th century.

Duchy of Carinthia

CarinthiaCarinthianDuke of Carinthia
When, in 1035, Conrad attempted to depose Adalbero, Duke of Carinthia, Henry, acting on the advice of his tutor, Egilbert, Bishop of Freising, refused to allow it, as Adalbero was a vassal of the King of Germany, not the Emperor.
From 889 to 976 it was the Carinthian March of the renewed Bavarian duchy, though in 927 the local Count Berthold of the Luitpolding dynasty was vested with ducal rights by the German king Henry the Fowler.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers.

Theodiscus

Deutschdiutisctheod-
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicorum "Kingdom of the Teutonics/Germans", Regnum Teutonicum "Teutonic Kingdom" ) developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries.

Carolingian Empire

CarolingianCarolingian eraFrankish Empire
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicorum "Kingdom of the Teutonics/Germans", Regnum Teutonicum "Teutonic Kingdom" ) developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries.