Kingdom of Great Britain

Location of Great Britain in 1789 in dark green; Ireland, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Hanover in light green
Queen Anne, who reigned from 1702 to 1714
Location of Great Britain in 1789 in dark green; Ireland, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Hanover in light green
Walpole, by Arthur Pond
Walpole's Houghton Hall
1740 political cartoon depicting a towering Walpole as the Colossus of Rhodes.
Lord Clive of the East India Company meeting his ally Mir Jafar after their decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757
Pitt addressing the Commons in 1793

Sovereign country in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 1 January 1801.

- Kingdom of Great Britain

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Kingdom of Scotland

Sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

James VI, whose inheritance of the thrones of England and Ireland created a dynastic union in 1603
Coronation of Alexander III of Scotland at Scone Abbey; beside him are the Mormaers of Strathearn and Fife while his genealogy is recited by a royal poet.
The Regiam Majestatem is the oldest surviving written digest of Scots law.
Institution of the Court of Session by James V in 1532, from the Great Window in Parliament House, Edinburgh
Penny of David II (1329–71)
A bawbee from the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots
The topography of Scotland.
Plan of Edinburgh in 1764, the largest city in Scotland in the early modern era
Dundrennan Abbey, one of the many royal foundations of the 12th century
John Knox, one of the key figures in the Scottish Reformation
The riots set off by Jenny Geddes in St Giles Cathedral that sparked off the Bishops' Wars
Tower of St Salvator's College, St Andrews, one of the three universities founded in the 15th century
A woodcut showing John Mair, one of the most successful products of the Scottish educational system in the late 15th century
Andrew Melville, credited with major reforms in Scottish Universities in the 16th century.
A carving of a birlinn from a 16th-century tombstone in MacDufie's Chapel, Oronsay, as engraved in 1772
A model of the Great Michael in the Royal Museum
Scottish soldiers in the period of the Hundred Years' War, detail from an edition of Froissart's Chronicles
The earliest image of Scottish soldiers wearing tartan; 1631 German engraving.
Sculpture of Saint Andrew, Freemasons Hall, Edinburgh
The Royal Standard of Scotland
The Royal Standard of Scotland used, with minor variations, between 1603 and 1707.
The Flag of Scotland; Azure, a saltire argent
The Scottish Union Flag used between 1606 and 1707.

In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union.

Great Britain

Island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

Greek geographer, Pytheas of Massalia
A 1490 Italian reconstruction of the relevant map of Ptolemy who combined the lines of roads and of the coasting expeditions during the first century of Roman occupation. Two great faults, however, are an eastward-projecting Scotland and none of Ireland seen to be at the same latitude of Wales, which may have been if Ptolemy used Pytheas' measurements of latitude. Whether he did so is a much debated issue. This "copy" appears in blue below.
Political definition of Great Britain ( dark green ) – in Europe ( green & dark grey ) – in the United Kingdom ( green )
Prima Europe tabula. A "copy" of Ptolemy's 2nd-century map of Roman Britain. See notes to image above.
View of Britain's coast from Cap Gris-Nez in northern France
The robin is popularly known as "Britain's favourite bird".
Heather growing wild in the Highlands at Dornoch.
Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Church of England – the island's largest denomination
Glasgow Cathedral, a meeting place of the Church of Scotland

The single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the 1707 Acts of Union between the kingdoms of England (which at the time incorporated Wales) and Scotland.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 8 March 1702.

Portrait by Michael Dahl, 1705
Anne (centre) and her sister Mary (left) with their parents, the Duke and Duchess of York, painted by Peter Lely and Benedetto Gennari II
Anne, circa 1684, painted by Willem Wissing and Jan van der Vaardt
Mary of Modena and James Francis Edward, Anne's stepmother and half-brother
Engraving of William and Mary
Anne with her son Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, in a painting from the school of Sir Godfrey Kneller, circa 1694
Portrait by Charles Jervas
Queen Anne addressing the House of Lords
Portrait from the school of John Closterman, circa 1702
Half-crown coin of Queen Anne, 1708. The inscription reads in ANNA DEI GRATIA (Anne by the Grace of God).
Anne with her husband, Prince George of Denmark, painted by Charles Boit, 1706
Allegory of the victory of the Grand Alliance at Schellenberg in 1704. The bust of Queen Anne at the top is surrounded by Allied leaders.
Tinted engraving of Anne from an atlas commissioned by Augustus the Strong, 1707
Statue of Anne in front of St Paul's Cathedral, London. A High Tory political opponent wrote that "it was fitting she was depicted with her rump to the church, gazing longingly into a wineshop".

On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain.

House of Stuart

Monument to the Royal Stuarts in St. Peter's Basilica – Work of Antonio Canova.
Armorial tablet of the Stewarts at Falkland Palace, Fife

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain.

Kingdom of Ireland

About the Irish kingdom that existed from 1542 to 1800.

The Kingdom of Ireland in 1789
Charlotte Schreiber's The Croppy Boy (1879), relating to the United Irishmen's Wexford Rebellion. A man, possibly a rebel from his green cravat, kneels before a Catholic priest who is covertly in military uniform. The church hierarchy opposed the rebellion.
Trinity College, Dublin was founded by the Elizabethans to serve as the organ of the Anglican intelligentsia.
Coat of arms with the crest

The Kingdom of Ireland (an Ríoghacht Éireann; an Ríocht Éireann, ) was a monarchy on the island of Ireland that was a client state of the Kingdom of England and then of Great Britain.

Robert Walpole

Portrait by Jean-Baptiste van Loo c. undefined 1740
Speaker Arthur Onslow calling upon Sir Robert Walpole to Speak in the House of Commons by William Hogarth
Walpole with his secretary, Henry Bilson-Legge, by Stephen Slaughter
1740 political cartoon depicting Walpole as the Colossus of Rhodes, alluding to his reluctance to engage Spain and France militarily
Satire on Nicholas Paxton, solicitor to the Treasury, and his refusal to answer questions from the Committee of Secrecy enquiring into the conduct of Robert Walpole.
Walpole's reign, contemporary political satire

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745; known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole) was a British statesman and Whig politician who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Monarchy of Ireland

Monarchical systems of government have existed in Ireland from ancient times.

Badge of the Kingdom of Ireland
Map of Ireland (900 AD)
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair
Henry VIII claimed the title "King of Ireland" in 1542.
Jacobite pretender, Henry Benedict Stuart. The French Directory suggested to United Irishmen making him King of the Irish in 1798 but were rebuffed. Many Irishmen were Jacobites in the early 18th century.
Leinster House, Dublin, decorated for the visit of King George V and Queen Mary in 1911.
Within a decade it was the seat of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State.
An Irish groat depicting Philip and Mary
The royal arms of Ireland – Badge of Ireland, used during the period of the Kingdom of Ireland on coins, etc.

The personal union between England and Scotland became a political union with the enactments of the Acts of Union 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

House of Hanover

Arms of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom (1816–1837)
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hanover 1837
Flag of the House of Hanover

The House of Hanover (Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a European royal house of German origin that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th to 20th centuries.

Isle of Man

Island nation and self-governing British Crown Dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland.

The Kingdom of the Isles about the year 1100
The Braaid in the central Isle of Man, with remnants of a Celtic-Norse roundhouse and two longhouses, c. AD 650–950
The Calf of Man seen from Cregneash
British passport (Isle of Man)
Local authorities and sheadings
Peel is the island's main fishing port.
Sea Terminal front façade
A bilingual sign in the Isle of Man featuring Manx and English
A sculpture of the Manx triskelion in front of Ronaldsway Airport terminal
Peel Cathedral
Peel Castle
Bee Gees plaque at Maitland Terrace/Strang Road intersection in Union Mills, Isle of Man
The National Sports Centre, Douglas, Isle of Man
Black Manx cat
Manx Loaghtan sheep are bred on the island for their meat.
Local authorities and sheadings

The lordship revested in the British Crown in 1765, but the island did not become part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain, nor of its successors, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Parliament of Scotland

The legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.

Scone and its Moot hill emerged as a favoured meeting place of the early colloquia and councils in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Old Tolbooth, Edinburgh. Usual meeting place of Parliament from 1438 to 1560
St Giles' Kirk, common meeting place of Parliament from 1563 to 1639.
The Riding of Parliament (the procession of members to and from the meeting place of Parliament) c. 1685, from Nicholas de Gueudeville's Atlas Historique, ou Nouvelle Introduction à l'Histoire à la Chronologie & à la Géographie Ancienne & Moderne (Amsterdam, 1720)
Parliament House in the 18th century; Parliament Hall on the right and the Treasury and the Exchequer in the east wing on the left

Thereafter the Parliament of Great Britain operated for both England and Scotland after the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain on 1 May 1707.