Kingdom of Greece

GreeceGreekGreek KingdomGreek statemonarchyindependent GreeceroyalGreek GovernmentGreek monarchyGreeks
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος ) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).wikipedia
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First Hellenic Republic

GreeceGreek revolutionariesProvisional Administration of Greece
The Kingdom succeeded from the Greek provisional governments after the Greek War of Independence, and lasted until 1924.
It is used to emphasize the constitutional and democratic nature of the revolutionary regime prior to the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Greece, and associate this period of Greek history with the later Second and Third Republics.

List of kings of Greece

King of the HellenesKing of GreeceKing
Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria was chosen as its first King.
The Kingdom of Greece was ruled by the House of Wittelsbach between 1832 and 1862 and by the House of Glücksburg from 1862 to 1924, temporarily abolished during the Second Hellenic Republic, and from 1935 to 1973, when it was permanently abolished and replaced by the Third Hellenic Republic.

London Conference of 1832

Convention of LondonLondon ConferenceTreaty of London
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος ) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
Negotiations between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince.

Otto of Greece

OttoKing OttoOtto I
Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria was chosen as its first King.
Otto (Όθων, Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.

Amalia of Oldenburg

Queen AmaliaAmaliaQueen Amalia of Greece
Otto's reign would prove troubled, but managed to last for 30 years before he and his wife, Queen Amalia, left the way they came, aboard a British warship.
Amalia of Oldenburg (Αμαλία; 21 December 1818 – 20 May 1875) was queen consort of Greece from 1836 to 1862 as the spouse of King Otto (1815–1867).

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
The restored Kingdom of Greece lasted from 1935 to 1973.
Following his assassination in 1831 and the subsequent London conference a year later, the Great Powers of Britain, France and Russia installed Bavarian Prince Otto von Wittelsbach as monarch.

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
With no further threat by the Serbs and the subsequent Byzantine civil wars, the Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453 and advanced southwards into Greece, capturing Athens in 1458. Greek discontent grew until a revolt broke out in Athens in September 1843.
Following the Greek War of Independence and the establishment of the Greek Kingdom, Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly independent Greek state in 1834, largely because of historical and sentimental reasons.

George I of Greece

George IKing George IKing George I of Greece
Instead, a young Danish prince became King George I.
George I (Greek: Γεώργιος Α΄, Geórgios I; 24 December 1845 – 18 March 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913.

1896 Summer Olympics

18961896 Olympics1896 Athens
Despite the bad financial situation, Athens staged the revival of the Olympic Games in 1896, which proved a great success.
Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

Greco-Turkish War (1897)

Greco-Turkish War of 1897Greco-Turkish War1897 Greco-Turkish War
In the ensuing Greco-Turkish War of 1897 the badly trained and equipped Greek army was defeated by the Ottomans.
The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days' War and known in Greece as the Black '97 (Μαύρο '97, Mauro '97) or the Unfortunate War (Ατυχής πόλεμος, Atychis polemos) (Turkish: 1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı or 1897 Türk-Yunan Savaşı), was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire.

List of heads of state of Greece

King of the HellenesPresident of GreeceGovernor of Greece
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias became Governor of Greece in 1827, but was assassinated in 1831.
Negotiations between the three Great Powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince.

Cretan State

Creteautonomous stateCretan
Through the intervention of the Great Powers, however, Greece lost only a little territory along the border to Turkey, while Crete was established as an autonomous state with the High Commissioner being Prince George of Greece.
In 1897, an insurrection in Crete headed by the Ottoman Empire to declare war on Greece, which led Great Britain, France, Italy and Russia to intervene on the grounds that the Ottoman Empire could no longer maintain control.

Constantine I of Greece

Constantine IConstantineKing Constantine I
With the declaration of war, the Greek Army of Thessaly under Crown Prince Constantine advanced to the north, successfully overcoming Ottoman opposition in the fortified Straits of Sarantaporo.
Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; 2 August 1868 – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.

Balkan League

Balkan alliesallianceallies
Through spring 1912, a series of bilateral agreements among the Balkan states (Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia) formed the Balkan League, which in October 1912 declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
The Balkan League was a quadruple alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Eastern Orthodox kingdoms of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of Southeastern Europe.

Battle of Sarantaporo

SarantaporoSarantaporosat Sarantaporo
With the declaration of war, the Greek Army of Thessaly under Crown Prince Constantine advanced to the north, successfully overcoming Ottoman opposition in the fortified Straits of Sarantaporo.
It was the first major battle fought between Greek and Ottoman forces during the initial stages of the First Balkan War, and revolved around the Sarandaporo pass, which connected Thessaly with central Macedonia.

3 September 1843 Revolution

1843 Revolutionassembledcoup
Greek discontent grew until a revolt broke out in Athens in September 1843.
With the establishment of the monarchy in 1832 and the arrival of the Bavarian prince Otto as king, however, these liberal institutions were discarded.

Thessaloniki

ThessalonicaSalonikaSalonica
This had fatal consequences for the Western Group of Armies, since it led to the early loss of the strategic centre of all three Macedonian fronts, the city of Thessaloniki, a fact that sealed their fate.
Thessaloniki was revived as the city's official name in 1912, when it joined the Kingdom of Greece during the Balkan Wars.

Greek Constitution of 1844

constitutionConstitution of 1844first Constitution
The new constitution created a bicameral parliament, consisting of an Assembly (Vouli) and a Senate (Gerousia).
The first constitution of the Kingdom of Greece was the Greek Constitution of 1844.

Eleftherios Venizelos

VenizelosEleutherios VenizelosVenizelist
Although parties were centered around the individual leaders, often bearing their names, two broad political tendencies existed: the liberals, led first by Charilaos Trikoupis and later by Eleftherios Venizelos, and the conservatives, led initially by Theodoros Deligiannis and later by Thrasivoulos Zaimis. On Crete, the local population, led by a young politician named Eleftherios Venizelos, declared Enosis, Union with Greece, provoking another crisis.
Throughout that period, the Cretan Question was a major issue of friction in the relations of independent Greece with the Ottoman Empire.

Enosis

unionunion with Greeceunification of Cyprus and Greece
On Crete, the local population, led by a young politician named Eleftherios Venizelos, declared Enosis, Union with Greece, provoking another crisis.
The boundaries of the Kingdom of Greece were originally established at the London Conference of 1832 following the Greek War of Independence.

Battle of Bizani

BizanicaptureFort Bezhani
In the Battle of Bizani the Ottoman positions were breached and Ioannina taken on 6 March 1913.
The battle was fought between Greek and Ottoman forces during the last stages of the First Balkan War, and revolved around the forts of Bizani, which covered the approaches to Ioannina, the largest city in the region.

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

Russo-Turkish WarRusso-Turkish War (1877–78)Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878
When war broke out between Russia and the Ottomans in 1877, popular Greek sentiment rallied to Russia's side, but Greece was too poor and too concerned about British intervention, to officially enter the war.
The Cretan Revolt, which began in 1866, resulted from the failure of the Ottoman Empire to apply reforms for improving the life of the population and the Cretans' desire for enosis — union with Greece.

Serbia

SRBRepublic of SerbiaSerbian
Through spring 1912, a series of bilateral agreements among the Balkan states (Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia) formed the Balkan League, which in October 1912 declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
Most of its army and some people retreated through Albania to Greece and Corfu, suffering immense losses on the way.

Piraeus

Piraeus, GreecePireusPireaus
During the Crimean War the British occupied Piraeus to prevent Greece declaring war on the Ottomans as a Russian ally.
With the creation of the modern Greek state and the proclamation of Athens as its capital in 1832, the port, still named Πόρτο Λεόνε 'Porto Leone' or Πόρτο Δράκο 'Porto Draco', again acquired a reason for growth, and began to develop into a commercial and industrial centre.

Principality of Samos

Prince of Samosautonomous principalitySamos
Samos, officially an autonomous principality, was not attacked until 13 March 1913, out of a desire not to upset the Italians in the nearby Dodecanese.
The island of Samos had participated in the Greek War of Independence and had successfully resisted several Turkish and Egyptian attempts to occupy it, but it was not included with the boundaries of the newly independent Kingdom of Greece after 1832.