Kingdom of Gwent

GwentkingdomNetherwentGwentlandKing of Gwentkings of GwentOver Gwent
Gwent was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.wikipedia
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Bishop of Llandaff

LlandaffBishops of LlandaffBishop of Landaff
Along with its neighbour Glywyssing, it seems to have had a great deal of cultural continuity with the earlier Silures, keeping their own courts and diocese separate from the rest of Wales until their conquest by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.
Before this, though still ministering to Glamorgan and Gwent, the bishops described themselves as Bishop of Teilo and were almost certainly based at Llandeilo Abbey.

Caradoc

Caradog FreichfrasLife of CaradocCaradog Strongarm
According to one Old Welsh genealogy, the founder of the kingdom was Caradoc Freichfras.
Caradoc Vreichvras ( Modern Caradog Freichfras, lit. "Caradoc Strongarm") was a semi-legendary ancestor to the kings of Gwent.

Ewyas

EwiasEwyas Lacy
To the north, the area adjoined Ewyas and Ergyng (later known as "Archenfield").
Some researchers interpret the evidence of the medieval Llandaff charters to suggest that early Ewyas may have encompassed much of south-east Wales, including the later kingdoms of Gwent and Ergyng.

Wales in the Middle Ages

medieval WalesWalesmedieval
Gwent was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.
The initial Norman successes were in the south, where William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford overran the Kingdom of Gwent before 1070.

Caerleon

Caerleon-on-UskCaerleon CastleCaerleon on the Usk
The earliest centre of the kingdom may have been at Caerwent, the Roman administrative centre, or perhaps Caerleon, formerly a major Roman military base.
During the Middle Ages, Caerleon or nearby Venta Silurum (now Caerwent) was the administrative centre of the Kingdom of Gwent.

Caerwent

Dewstow
The earliest centre of the kingdom may have been at Caerwent, the Roman administrative centre, or perhaps Caerleon, formerly a major Roman military base. The town itself became Caerwent, "Fort Venta".
The town would give its name to the post Roman successor kingdom of Gwent and it's possible that the modern name means "Fort of Gwent".

Archenfield

Archenfield Hundredthe 'Dunsæte
To the north, the area adjoined Ewyas and Ergyng (later known as "Archenfield").
King Peibio and his descendants are rulers of the area attested from about 555 AD until, in the middle of the 7th century, Onbraust of Ergyng married Meurig of Gwent and the two neighbouring kingdoms were combined.

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

Gruffudd ap LlywelynGruffyddGruffudd
Along with its neighbour Glywyssing, it seems to have had a great deal of cultural continuity with the earlier Silures, keeping their own courts and diocese separate from the rest of Wales until their conquest by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Gwent's existence as a separate kingdom again temporarily ended when Gruffydd ap Llywelyn won control of the area and Morgannŵg in 1055, so extending his rule over the whole of Wales.
Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard.

Athrwys ap Meurig

Athrwys
It has been suggested that Meurig's son, Athrwys, may be the origin for King Arthur, although others consider this unlikely.
605–655) was a prince, and possibly king, of Gwent and Glywysing in Wales.

Erb of Gwent

Erb
Other suggestions are that Gwent was founded by Erb, possibly a descendant of Caradoc, who may have been a ruler of Ergyng east of the Black Mountains who won control of a wider area to the south.
King Erb (also, in Latin, Urbanus) (c.524 – c.555) was the king of Gwent and Glywysing, kingdoms in the south of Wales in the Early Middle Ages.

Glywysing

MorgannwgGorfynyddKingdom of Morgannwg
Along with its neighbour Glywyssing, it seems to have had a great deal of cultural continuity with the earlier Silures, keeping their own courts and diocese separate from the rest of Wales until their conquest by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. His son Meurig may have been responsible for uniting Gwent with Glywysing to the west in the 7th century, through marriage.
Its people were descended from the Iron Age tribe of the Silures, and frequently in union with Gwent, merging to form Morgannwg.

Ergyng

Kingdom of Ergyng
To the north, the area adjoined Ewyas and Ergyng (later known as "Archenfield").
The area was originally part of the Kingdom of Glywysing (modern Glamorgan) and Gwent, but seems to have become independent for a period under Gwrfoddw Hen in the late 5th century, and again under King Peibio Clafrog in the mid-6th century.

Meurig ap Tewdrig

MeurigMeuric ap Tewdric
His son Meurig may have been responsible for uniting Gwent with Glywysing to the west in the 7th century, through marriage.
Tewdrig), and a king of the early Welsh kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing.

Sub-Roman Britain

Britainsub-Romanpost-Roman
In the post Roman period, the territory around Venta became the successor kingdom of Guenta, later Gwent, deriving its name directly from the town through the normal sound change in the Brythonic languages from v to gu.

Caradog ap Gruffydd

Caradog ap Gruffudd
However, after Gruffydd's death in 1063, Caradog ap Gruffudd re-established an independent kingdom in Gwent under his father's 2nd cousin Cadwgan ap Meurig.
1081) was a Prince of Gwent in south-east Wales in the time of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and the Norman conquest, who reunified his family's inheritance of Morgannwg and made repeated attempts to reunite southern Wales by claiming the inheritance of the Kingdom of Deheubarth.

Forest of Dean

Royal Forest of DeanThe Forest of DeanDean
Gwent may also have extended east of the River Wye into areas known as Cantref Coch, which later became the Forest of Dean.
The area's history is obscure for several centuries after Roman period during the so-called Dark Ages, although at different times it may have been part of the Welsh kingdoms of Gwent and Ergyng, and the Beachley and Lancaut peninsulas east of the Lower Wye remained in Welsh control at least until the 8th century.

Æthelstan

AthelstanKing AthelstanAthelstan of England
Its eastern boundary later became established as the Wye, perhaps first determined by Offa of Mercia's dyke in the late 8th century, and certainly by Athelstan of England in 927.
Wales was divided into a number of small kingdoms, including Deheubarth in the southwest, Gwent in the southeast, Brycheiniog immediately north of Gwent, and Gwynedd in the north.

Tewdrig

TewdricSt TewdricSaint Tewdrig
A later monarch was the Christian King Tewdrig who was mortally wounded repelling a pagan Saxon invasion.
The Book of Llandaff places Tewdrig's story in the territory of the historical Kingdom of Gwent (the southeastern part of modern Monmouthshire), though it states that he was a king of Glywysing.

Dubricius

DyfrigSaint DubriciusSaint Dyfrig
Welsh saints like Dubricius, Tatheus and Cadoc Christianized the area from the 5th century onwards.
He later became Bishop of Ergyng, possibly with his seat at Weston under Penyard, and probably held sway over all of Glamorgan and Gwent, an area that was later known as the diocese of Llandaff.

Silures

SiluriaSilurianSilure
Along with its neighbour Glywyssing, it seems to have had a great deal of cultural continuity with the earlier Silures, keeping their own courts and diocese separate from the rest of Wales until their conquest by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.
Caerwent seems to have continued in use in the post-Roman period as a religious centre and the territory of the Silures later became the 5th century Welsh Kingdoms of Gwent, Brycheiniog and Gwynllŵg.

History of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages

GwyneddCouncil of AberdyfiGwynedd in the High Middle Ages
Gwent's existence as a separate kingdom again temporarily ended when Gruffydd ap Llywelyn won control of the area and Morgannŵg in 1055, so extending his rule over the whole of Wales.
In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn defeated and killed his southern rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch and took possession of Deheubarth, later driving out Meurig ap Hywel and Cadwagan ap Hywel of Gwent, and so becoming master over the whole of Wales.

Venta Silurum

VentaCaerwent
It took its name from the civitas capital of Venta Silurum, perhaps meaning "Market of the Silures".
The name Venta gave its name to the emerging Kingdom of Gwent (called initially "Kingdom of Guenta"), and the town itself became known as Caer-went or "the castra/fort of Venta/Gwent".

Glamorgan

GlamorganshireCounty of GlamorganGlamorgan County Council
In about 942, Gwent and Glywysing were again temporarily united under the name of Morgannŵg by Morgan Hen, but they were broken up again after his death.
The name Morgannwg or Glamorgan ('territory of Morgan') reputedly derives from the 8th-century king Morgan ab Athrwys, otherwise known as "Morgan Mwynfawr" ('great in riches') who united Glywysing with the neighbouring kingdoms of Gwent and Ergyng, although some have argued for the similar 10th-century ruler Morgan Hen.

Tathan

TatheusSaint TathanSaint Tatheus
Welsh saints like Dubricius, Tatheus and Cadoc Christianized the area from the 5th century onwards.
His boat sailed up the River Severn and landed in the medieval Kingdom of Gwent.

Sudbrook, Monmouthshire

SudbrookSouthbrook, Monmouthshire
According to tradition, in about the 6th century Caradoc moved his court from Caerwent to Portskewett, perhaps meaning nearby Sudbrook.
According to tradition, Caradog Freichfras, the Welsh ruler of Gwent in the 5th century or 6th century AD, moved his court from Caerwent to the Portskewett area, possibly to the fort.