Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)

HungaryKingdom of HungaryHungarianRegency HungaryHorthy regimeHungarian KingdomregencyHungarian RegencymonarchyHorthy era
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), sometimes referred to as the Regency, existed as a country from 1920 to 1946 under the rule of Regent Miklós Horthy.wikipedia
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Miklós Horthy

HorthyAdmiral HorthyMiklós Horthy de Nagybánya
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), sometimes referred to as the Regency, existed as a country from 1920 to 1946 under the rule of Regent Miklós Horthy.
He served as Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between World Wars I and II and throughout most of World War II, from 1 March 1920 to 15 October 1944.

Little Entente

Ententeneighbouring countriesneighbouring states
Attempts by Charles IV to return to the throne were prevented by threats of war from neighbouring countries and by the lack of support from Horthy.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration.

Arrow Cross Party

Arrow CrossNYKPHungarian Nazis
The Arrow Cross Party's leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new Nazi-backed government, effectively turning Hungary into a German-occupied puppet state. Shortly afterward, German forces invaded Hungary, deposed Horthy as Regent, and installed a puppet regime led by Ferenc Szálasi of the anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party.
The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement", abbreviated NYKP) was a far-right fascist party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity.

Ferenc Szálasi

SzálasiColonel Ferenc SzálasiSzalasi
The Arrow Cross Party's leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new Nazi-backed government, effectively turning Hungary into a German-occupied puppet state. Shortly afterward, German forces invaded Hungary, deposed Horthy as Regent, and installed a puppet regime led by Ferenc Szálasi of the anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party.
Ferenc Szálasi (6 January 1897 – 12 March 1946) was the leader of the fascist Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement, the "Leader of the Nation" (Nemzetvezető), being both Head of State and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary's "Government of National Unity" (Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) for the final six months of Hungary's participation in World War II, after Germany occupied Hungary and removed Miklós Horthy by force.

Second Hungarian Republic

HungaryHungarian RepublicRepublic of Hungary
In 1946, the Second Hungarian Republic was established under Soviet influence.
The Second Hungarian Republic (Magyar Köztársaság) was a parliamentary republic briefly established after the disestablishment of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and was itself dissolved on 20 August 1949.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-HungarianAustro-Hungarian EmpireAustrian
Upon the dissolution and break-up of Austria-Hungary after World War I, the Hungarian Democratic Republic and then the Hungarian Soviet Republic were briefly proclaimed in 1918 and 1919, respectively.
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

Regent of Hungary

RegentRegent of the Kingdom of HungaryHungarian Regent
With civil unrest too great to choose a new king, it was decided to select a regent to represent the monarchy.
He was regent of the post World War I state called the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46) and served as the head of state in the absence of a monarch, while a prime minister served as head of government.

István Horthy

István
In January 1942, Parliament appointed Horthy's eldest son István as Deputy Regent and expected successor.
István Horthy de Nagybánya (9 December 1904 – 20 August 1942) was Hungarian Regent Admiral Miklós Horthy's eldest son, a politician, and, during World War II, a fighter pilot.

Puppet state

puppet governmentpuppetpuppet regime
The Arrow Cross Party's leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new Nazi-backed government, effectively turning Hungary into a German-occupied puppet state.
* Hungary's Government of National Unity (1944–1945) – The pro-Nazi régime of Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi supported by the Arrow Cross Party was a German puppet régime.

Operation Panzerfaust

German occupation of Hungarycoupdeposed
Shortly afterward, German forces invaded Hungary, deposed Horthy as Regent, and installed a puppet regime led by Ferenc Szálasi of the anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party.
Operation Panzerfaust (Unternehmen Panzerfaust), was a military operation to keep the Kingdom of Hungary at Germany's side in the war, conducted in October 1944 by the German Wehrmacht.

Hungarian pengő

pengőHungarypengo
He introduced a new currency in 1927, the pengő.
The pengő (sometimes written as pengo or pengoe in English) was the currency of Hungary between 1 January 1927, when it replaced the korona, and 31 July 1946, when it was replaced by the forint.

High National Council

Hungary
A High National Council was appointed in January to assume the Regency, and included members of the Hungarian Communist Party, like Ernő Gerő, and later Mátyás Rákosi and László Rajk.
The High National Council was the collective head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1945 until 1946.

Axis powers

AxisAxis forcesAxis power
The Kingdom of Hungary under Horthy was an Axis Power during most of World War II.
The term was used by Hungary's prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany and Italy in the early 1930s.

First Vienna Award

First1938Vienna Award
Finally the First Vienna Award reassigned the southern parts of Czechoslovakia to Hungary, and shortly after Czechoslovakia was abolished Hungary occupied and annexed the remainder of the Carpatho-Ukraine.
Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the territorial claims of the Kingdom of Hungary and to revise the Treaty of Trianon of 1920.

Northern Transylvania

northern part of Transylvanianorthern territories of TransylvaniaNorthern Transylvanian
Finally both parties accepted the arbitration of Germany and Italy, known as the Second Vienna Award, and as a result Northern Transylvania was assigned to Hungary.
Northern Transylvania (Transilvania de Nord, Észak-Erdély) was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Carpatho-Ukraine

Carpathian UkraineRutheniaTranscarpathia
Finally the First Vienna Award reassigned the southern parts of Czechoslovakia to Hungary, and shortly after Czechoslovakia was abolished Hungary occupied and annexed the remainder of the Carpatho-Ukraine.
Hitler did not reply and the historical part of Hungary was annexed by Hungary between March 15 & 16 1939, remaining under Hungarian control until the end of World War II, when it was ceded to the Soviet Union.

Second Vienna Award

1940territorial lossesVienna Award
Finally both parties accepted the arbitration of Germany and Italy, known as the Second Vienna Award, and as a result Northern Transylvania was assigned to Hungary.
Rendered on 30 August 1940, it assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania (including all of Maramureș and part of Crișana) from Romania to Hungary.

Invasion of Yugoslavia

invasioninvadedinvaded Yugoslavia
In April 1941, Hungary let the Wehrmacht into her territory, thus supporting Germany and Italy in the invasion of Yugoslavia.
These attacks were followed by German thrusts from Romania, Hungary and the Ostmark.

Second Army (Hungary)

Hungarian 2nd ArmyHungarian Second ArmySecond Army
The entire Hungarian Second Army was lost during the Battle of Stalingrad.
The Hungarian Second Army (Második Magyar Hadsereg) was one of three field armies (hadsereg) raised by the Kingdom of Hungary (Magyar Királyság) which saw action during World War II.

Independent State of Croatia

CroatiaNDHCroatian
After the Independent State of Croatia was proclaimed, Hungary joined the military operations and was allowed to annex the Bačka (Bácska) region in Vojvodina, which had a relative majority of Hungarians, as well as the region of Muraköz (present-day Prekmurje and Medjimurje), which had large Slovenian and Croatian majorities, respectively.
It bordered the Third Reich to the north-west, Kingdom of Hungary to the north-east, Serbian administration (a joint German-Serb government) to the east, Montenegro (an Italian protectorate) to the south-east and Italy along its coastal area.

Battle of Stalingrad

Stalingraddefeat at Stalingradat Stalingrad
The entire Hungarian Second Army was lost during the Battle of Stalingrad.
On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.

Operation Margarethe

German occupation of HungaryNazi occupation of Hungaryoccupation of Hungary
On 19 March 1944, the Germans responded by invading Hungary in Operation Margarethe.
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944.

Mátyás Rákosi

RákosiComrade RákosiRakosi
A High National Council was appointed in January to assume the Regency, and included members of the Hungarian Communist Party, like Ernő Gerő, and later Mátyás Rákosi and László Rajk.
After returning to Hungary in 1924, he was imprisoned, but he was released to the Soviet Union in 1940, in exchange for the Hungarian revolutionary banners captured by Russian troops at Világos in 1849.

Hungary between the World Wars

Hungaryinterwar periodHungarian
Hungary between the World Wars
This article is about the history of Hungary from October 1918 to November 1940.

White Terror (Hungary)

White Terror1919–1921had been overthrown
This period was known as the "White Terror".
The National Army invaded Budapest in November 1919, and four months later Horthy became Regent of the newly established Kingdom of Hungary.