Kingdom of Judah

Judahking of JudahJudahiteJudeanKings of Judahsouthern kingdomJudaeanation of Judahof Judahancient Judah
Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel.wikipedia
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Jerusalem

QudsJerusalem, Israelal-Quds
Jerusalem, the kingdom's capital, likely did not emerge as a significant administrative center until the end of the 8th century; before this the archaeological evidence suggests its population was too small to sustain a viable kingdom.
During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.

Hezekiah

King HezekiahEzekiasEzechias
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib ), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities), but his successors, Manasseh of Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Kingdom of IsraelIsraelUnited Kingdom of Israel
The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to a United Monarchy, but historians are divided about the veracity of this account. According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
On the succession of Solomon's son, Rehoboam, around 930 BCE, the biblical account reports that the country split into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel (including the cities of Shechem and Samaria) in the north and the Kingdom of Judah (containing Jerusalem) in the south.

Sennacherib

conquerKing SennacheribSennacherib against Hezekiah
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib ), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
He is principally remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah, and for his building programs – most notably at the Akkadian capital of Nineveh.

Solomon

King SolomonSalomonSolomonic magic
According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

Kingdom of IsraelIsraelnorthern Kingdom of Israel
The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel in the north, coexisted uneasily after the split until the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel by Assyria in c. 722/721.
Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Yahweh

GodYahGod of Israel
The major theme of the Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, to Yahweh, which it states is the God of Israel.
Yahweh was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.

Manasseh of Judah

ManassehKing ManassehManasseh of Juda
Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities), but his successors, Manasseh of Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh.
Manasseh was a king of the Kingdom of Judah.

Davidic line

House of DavidDavidic dynastyDavidic
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.
All subsequent kings in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the later Kingdom of Judah claimed direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite tribes.

Josiah

King JosiahJosiah's reformsJosias
King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BCE).
Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon, and reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BCE.

Rehoboam

King Rehoboam of JudahSolomon's heir Rehoboam, King of the Hebrews
According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
In the account of I Kings and II Chronicles, he was initially king of the United Monarchy of Israel, but after the ten northern tribes of Israel rebelled in 932/931 BC to form the independent Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), under the rule of Jeroboam, Rehoboam remained as king only of the Kingdom of Judah, or southern kingdom.

Jeroboam's Revolt

perpetual war
For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war between them.
Jeroboam's Revolt was an armed insurrection against Rehoboam, king of the United Monarchy of Israel, and subsequently the Kingdom of Judah, lead by Jeroboam in the late 10th century BCE, as described by the First Book of Kings and the Second Book of Chronicles of the Hebrew Bible.

Israelites

IsraeliteIsraelchildren of Israel
The major theme of the Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, to Yahweh, which it states is the God of Israel.
During the period of the divided monarchy "Israelites" was only used to refer to the inhabitants of the northern Kingdom of Israel, and it is only extended to cover the people of the southern Kingdom of Judah in post-exilic usage.

Abijah of Judah

AbijahAbiaAbijah I
Rehoboam's son and successor, Abijah of Judah continued his father's efforts to bring Israel under his control.
Abijam was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the fourth king of the House of David and the second of the Kingdom of Judah.

Shishak

Sack of Jerusalemsackedcaptured and pillaged Jerusalem
In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak, pharaoh of Egypt, brought a huge army and took many cities.
Shishak's campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible ( and ).

Asa of Judah

AsaAsa, king of JudahKing Asa
Abijah's son and successor, Asa of Judah, maintained peace for the first 35 years of his reign, during which time he revamped and reinforced the fortresses originally built by his grandfather, Rehoboam.
Asa was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the Kingdom of Judah and the fifth king of the House of David.

Assyria

AssyriansAssyrianAssyrian Empire
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib ), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel in the north, coexisted uneasily after the split until the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel by Assyria in c. 722/721.
Tiglath-Pileser III conquered as far as the East Mediterranean, bringing the Greeks of Cyprus, Phoenicia, Judah, Philistia, Samarra and the whole of Aramea under Assyrian control.

Monotheism

monotheisticmonotheistmonotheists
Accordingly, all the kings of Israel and almost all the kings of Judah were "bad", which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce monotheism.
YHWH was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah.

Tribe of Judah

JudahTribes of Judahhouse of Judah
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.
These tribes formed the Kingdom of Judah, which existed until Judah was conquered by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and the population deported.

Battle of Mount Zemaraim

a major battleMount Zemaraim
He fought the Battle of Mount Zemaraim against Jeroboam of Israel and was victorious with a heavy loss of life on the Israel side.
The great Battle of Mount Zemaraim was reported in the Bible to have been fought in Mount Zemaraim, when the army of the Kingdom of Israel led by the king Jeroboam I encountered the army of the Kingdom of Judah led by the king Abijah I.

Tribe of Benjamin

BenjaminBenjamiteBenjamites
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.
The tribe of Benjamin remained a part of the Kingdom of Judah until Judah was conquered by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and the population deported.

Jehoshaphat

JosaphatIosaphat/JosaphatJesophat
Asa's successor, Jehoshaphat, changed the policy towards Israel and instead pursued alliances and co-operation with the northern kingdom. Jehoshaphat's successor, Jehoram of Judah formed an alliance with Israel by marrying Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab.
Jehoshaphat, according to 1 Kings 15:24, was the son of Asa, and the king of the Kingdom of Judah, in succession to his father.

Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)

destruction of Jerusalemsiege of Jerusalemfall of Jerusalem
King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BCE).
Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah and began a siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC. During this siege, the duration of which was either 18 or 30 months, the Bible describes the city as enduring horrible deprivation.

Jehoram of Judah

JehoramJoramKing Jehoram
Jehoshaphat's successor, Jehoram of Judah formed an alliance with Israel by marrying Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab.
Jehoram of Judah or Joram (Ιωραμ; Joram), was a king of Judah, and the son of Jehoshaphat.

Neo-Babylonian Empire

Neo-BabylonianBabylonBabylonian
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib ), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BCE).
In 597 BC, he invaded Judah and captured Jerusalem and deposed its king Jehoiachin.