Kingdom of Judah

Judahking of JudahHouse of JudahJudahiteJudeanKings of Judahsouthern kingdomJudaeaKingdom of Judeanation of Judah
Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel.wikipedia
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Solomon

King SolomonSalomonSchlomo
The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul, David and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms, Judah and Israel; but some scholars, including Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin, believe that the existent archaeological evidence for an extensive Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE is too weak, and that the methodology used to obtain the evidence is flawed. According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
He is described as the fourth king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

Kingdom of IsraelIsraelNorthern Kingdom of Israel
The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul, David and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms, Judah and Israel; but some scholars, including Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin, believe that the existent archaeological evidence for an extensive Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE is too weak, and that the methodology used to obtain the evidence is flawed.
Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
Such scholars believe that, prior to this era, the kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity which was limited to Jerusalem and its immediate surroundings.
During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Kingdom of IsraelUnited MonarchyIsrael
The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul, David and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms, Judah and Israel; but some scholars, including Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin, believe that the existent archaeological evidence for an extensive Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE is too weak, and that the methodology used to obtain the evidence is flawed. According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
On the succession of Solomon's son, Rehoboam, around 930 BCE, the biblical account reports that the country split into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel (including the cities of Shechem and Samaria) in the north and the Kingdom of Judah (containing Jerusalem) in the south.

Hezekiah

King HezekiahEzekiasEzechias
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities), but his successors, Manasseh of Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.

Sennacherib

Sin-ahhe-eribaKing SennacheribCampaigns of Sennacherib
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
He is principally remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah, and for his building programs – most notably at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh.

Rehoboam

King RehoboamKing Rehoboam of JudahRoboam
According to the Hebrew Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United Kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king.
Rehoboam (Hebrew: רְחַבְעָם‬, Rehav'am; Greek: Ροβοαμ, Rovoam; Roboam) was the fifth and last king of the Kingdom of Israel but the first king of the Kingdom of Judah.

Yahweh

GodGod of IsraelYah
The major theme of the Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, to Yahweh, which it states is the God of Israel.
Yahweh was the national god of the kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah with origins reaching at least to the early Iron Age and apparently to the Late Bronze.

Manasseh of Judah

ManassehKing ManassehManasseh of Juda
Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities), but his successors, Manasseh of Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh.
Manasseh was a king of the Kingdom of Judah.

Josiah

King JosiahJosiasJosiah's reforms
King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BCE).
Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon, and reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BCE.

David

King DavidDavid and GoliathDavidic
The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul, David and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms, Judah and Israel; but some scholars, including Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin, believe that the existent archaeological evidence for an extensive Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE is too weak, and that the methodology used to obtain the evidence is flawed. The Kingdom of Judah ( Mamléḵeṯ Yehudāh; Ya'uda; 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 Bēyt Dāwīḏ) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Other scholars, such as Anson Rainey have challenged this reading, but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah which traced its ancestry to a founder named David.

Davidic line

House of DavidDavidic dynastyDavidic
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.
All subsequent kings in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the later Kingdom of Judah claimed direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite tribes.

Jeroboam's Revolt

Breach of Jeroboamperpetual war
For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war between them.
Jeroboam's Revolt was an armed insurrection against Rehoboam, king of the United Monarchy of Israel, and subsequently the Kingdom of Judah, lead by Jeroboam in the late 10th century BCE, according to the First Book of Kings and the Second Book of Chronicles of the Hebrew Bible.

Israelites

IsraeliteChildren of IsraelIsrael
The major theme of the Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, to Yahweh, which it states is the God of Israel.
During the period of the divided monarchy "Israelites" was only used to refer to the inhabitants of the northern Kingdom of Israel, and it is only extended to cover the people of the southern Kingdom of Judah in post-exilic usage.

Shishak

ShishaqSack of Jerusalem (925 BC)Sack of Jerusalem
In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak, pharaoh of Egypt, brought a huge army and took many cities.
Shishak's campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible ( and ).

Abijah of Judah

AbijahAbijamAbia
Rehoboam's son and successor, Abijah of Judah, continued his father's efforts to bring Israel under his control.
Abijam (Αβιου; Abiam) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the fourth king of the House of David and the second of the Kingdom of Judah.

Asa of Judah

AsaAsa, king of JudahKing Asa
Abijah's son and successor, Asa of Judah, maintained peace for the first 35 years of his reign, during which time he revamped and reinforced the fortresses originally built by his grandfather, Rehoboam.
Asa (Ασα; Asa) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the Kingdom of Judah and the fifth king of the House of David.

Monotheism

monotheisticmonotheistmonotheists
Accordingly, all the kings of Israel and many of the kings of Judah were "bad", which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce monotheism.
Yahweh was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah.

Tribe of Judah

JudahJudahiteJudean
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.
These tribes formed the Kingdom of Judah, which existed until Judah was conquered by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and the population deported.

Jehoshaphat

JosaphatJehosaphatIosaphat/Josaphat
Asa's successor, Jehoshaphat, changed the policy towards Israel and instead pursued alliances and co-operation with the northern kingdom.
Jehoshaphat,(alternatively spelled Jehosaphat, Josaphat, or Yehoshafat; ; Ἰωσαφάτ; Josaphat) according to 1 Kings 15:24, was the son of Asa, and the king of the Kingdom of Judah, in succession to his father.

Battle of Mount Zemaraim

Zemaraima major battleMount Zemaraim
He fought the Battle of Mount Zemaraim against Jeroboam of Israel and was victorious with a heavy loss of life on the Israel side.
The great Battle of Mount Zemaraim was reported in the Bible to have been fought in Mount Zemaraim, when the army of the Kingdom of Israel led by the king Jeroboam I encountered the army of the Kingdom of Judah led by the king Abijah I.

Assyria

Assyrian EmpireAssyriansAssyrian
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Tiglath-Pileser III conquered as far as the East Mediterranean, bringing the Greeks of Cyprus, Phoenicia, Judah, Philistia, Samaria and the whole of Aramea under Assyrian control.

Tribe of Benjamin

BenjaminBenjamiteBenjamites
At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah.
The tribe of Benjamin remained a part of the Kingdom of Judah until Judah was conquered by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and the population deported.

Yehud (Babylonian province)

YehudYehud ProvinceBabylonian
In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
The former kingdom of Judah then became a Babylonian province, with Gedaliah, a native Judahite but not of the royal Davidic dynasty, as governor (or possibly ruling as a puppet king).

Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)

siege of Jerusalemdestruction of Jerusalemfall of Jerusalem
King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BCE).
Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah and began a siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC.