Kingdom of Kongo

KongoCongoKongo KingdomKongo EmpireKingdom of the KongoKingdom of CongoCongo regionKing of KongoKongo-Portuguese WarWest Central Africa
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was a kingdom located in west central Africa in present-day northern Angola, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.wikipedia
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Congo River

CongoCongo River BasinRiver Congo
At its greatest extent it reached from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Kwango River in the east, and from the Congo River in the north to the Kwanza River in the south.
The name Congo/Kongo river originates from the Kingdom of Kongo once located on the southern bank of the river.

Manikongo

MwenekongoMweneKing
The kingdom consisted of several core provinces ruled by the Manikongo, the Portuguese version of the Kongo title Mwene Kongo, meaning "lord or ruler of the Kongo kingdom", but its sphere of influence extended to neighbouring kingdoms, such as Ngoyo, Kakongo, Loango, Ndongo and Matamba, the last two located in what is Angola today.
The Manikongo or Mwene Kongo was the title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, a kingdom that existed from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries and consisted of land in present-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Angola

Republic of AngolaAngolanAO
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was a kingdom located in west central Africa in present-day northern Angola, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
Ndongo in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century.

Kingdom of Loango

LoangoLoango KingdomLoango Coast
The kingdom consisted of several core provinces ruled by the Manikongo, the Portuguese version of the Kongo title Mwene Kongo, meaning "lord or ruler of the Kongo kingdom", but its sphere of influence extended to neighbouring kingdoms, such as Ngoyo, Kakongo, Loango, Ndongo and Matamba, the last two located in what is Angola today.
Situated to the north of the more powerful Kingdom of Kongo, at its height in the 17th century Loango influence extended from Cape St Catherine in the north to almost the mouth of the Congo River.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of CongoCongoDR Congo
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was a kingdom located in west central Africa in present-day northern Angola, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries.

Kingdom of Matamba

MatambaNdongo-Matamba
The kingdom consisted of several core provinces ruled by the Manikongo, the Portuguese version of the Kongo title Mwene Kongo, meaning "lord or ruler of the Kongo kingdom", but its sphere of influence extended to neighbouring kingdoms, such as Ngoyo, Kakongo, Loango, Ndongo and Matamba, the last two located in what is Angola today.
The first documentary mention of the Kingdom of Matamba is a reference to it giving tribute to the King of Kongo, then Afonso I of Kongo, in 1530.

Dynasty

dynasticroyal housedynasties
A dynasty of rulers from this small polity built up its rule along the Kwilu valley, and its members are buried in Nsi Kwilu, its capital.

Jean Cuvelier

More detailed research in modern oral traditions, initially conducted in the early 20th century by Redemptorist missionaries like Jean Cuvelier and Joseph de Munck do not appear to relate to the very early period.
Cuvelier was notable for his interest in the history of the Kingdom of Kongo, which he saw as a route to evangelization in his time.

Lukeni lua Nimi

Ntinu Nimi a Lukeni
The first king of the Kingdom of Kongo Dya Ntotila was Nimi a Nzima and Luqueni Luansanze's son Lukeni lua Nimi (circa 1380–1420).
Lukeni lua Nimi (also Ntinu Nimi a Lukeni; c. 1380–1420) was the first king and founder of the Kingdom of Kongo Dia Ntotila.

Kilukeni

House of Kilukeni
The rulers that followed Lukeni all claimed some form of relation to his kanda, or lineage and were known as the Kilukeni.
The Kilukeni were members of the Lukeni kanda or House of Kilukeni, the ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Kongo from its inception in the late 14th century until the 1567 with the rise of the House of Kwilu.

Republic of the Congo

Republic of CongoCongoCongolese
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was a kingdom located in west central Africa in present-day northern Angola, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, and the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin.

Afonso I of Kongo

Alfonso IAfonso INzinga Mbemba
João I ruled until his death around 1506 and was succeeded by his son Afonso Mvemba a Nzinga.
1456–1542 or 1543), also known as King Afonso I, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century.

João I of Kongo

João INzinga a NkuwuJoão I Nzinga a Nkuwu
Nzinga a Nkuwu took the Christian name of João I in honor of Portugal's king at the time, João II.
João I of Kongo (died 1509), alias Nzinga a Nkuwu or Nkuwu Nzinga, was ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo between 1470 and 1509.

Catholic Church in Kongo

Roman Catholic Church in KongoChristianityconverted to Christianity
King Afonso I worked to create a viable version of the Roman Catholic Church in Kongo, providing for its income from royal assets and taxation that provided salaries for its workers.
The Catholic Church arrived in the Kingdom of Kongo shortly after the first Portuguese explorers reached its shores in 1483.

Joseph de Munck

More detailed research in modern oral traditions, initially conducted in the early 20th century by Redemptorist missionaries like Jean Cuvelier and Joseph de Munck do not appear to relate to the very early period.
Joseph de Munck was a Belgian Catholic Priest of the Redemptorist Order noted for his historical research relating to the Old Kingdom of Kongo.

Kakongo

Kakongo KingdomKingdom of Kakongo
The kingdom consisted of several core provinces ruled by the Manikongo, the Portuguese version of the Kongo title Mwene Kongo, meaning "lord or ruler of the Kongo kingdom", but its sphere of influence extended to neighbouring kingdoms, such as Ngoyo, Kakongo, Loango, Ndongo and Matamba, the last two located in what is Angola today.
The kingdom is first mentioned in the titles of the King of Kongo Afonso I in 1535, in which he notes that he was king over this region, as well as a number of others located along the north bank of the Congo River.

Kanda (lineage)

kandakandas
The rulers that followed Lukeni all claimed some form of relation to his kanda, or lineage and were known as the Kilukeni.

Girolamo da Montesarchio

According to the missionary Girolamo da Montesarchio, an Italian Capuchin who visited the area from 1650 to 1652, the site was so holy that looking upon it was deadly.
The Italian Capuchin Girolamo da Montesarchio spent twenty years in the mid-17th century in the Kingdom of Kongo in West Africa.

São Tomé

Sao TomeSao ToméSt. Thomas
The Cantino Atlas of 1502 mentions Kongo as a source of slaves for the island of São Tomé.
The nearby African Kingdom of Kongo eventually became a source of slave labor as well.

Giovanni Cavazzi da Montecuccolo

Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi da MontecuccoloAntonio Cavazzi de MontecuccoloGiovanni Cavazzi
Verbal traditions about the early history of the country were set in writing for the first time in the late 16th century, and the most comprehensive were recorded in the mid-17th century, including those written by the Italian Capuchin missionary Giovanni Cavazzi da Montecuccolo.
He traveled widely as a chaplain with the Portuguese Army including a stay at the court of the king of Pungo Andongo, a trip with them, in 1659 into the central highlands region, a visit in 1660 to the court of Queen Nzinga (or Njinga) in Matamba and the Kingdom of Kongo.

Kingdom of Ndongo

Ndongoking of NdongoKingdom of Ndongo-Matamba
The kingdom consisted of several core provinces ruled by the Manikongo, the Portuguese version of the Kongo title Mwene Kongo, meaning "lord or ruler of the Kongo kingdom", but its sphere of influence extended to neighbouring kingdoms, such as Ngoyo, Kakongo, Loango, Ndongo and Matamba, the last two located in what is Angola today.
It was one of a number of vassal states to Kongo, though Ndongo was the most powerful of these with a king called the Ngola.

Protectorate

British Protectorateprotectionprotectorates
The remaining territories of the kingdom were assimilated into the colony of Angola and the Protectorate of Cabinda respectively.

Atlantic slave trade

transatlantic slave tradeslave tradetrans-Atlantic slave trade
Despite its long establishment within his kingdom, Afonso believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law.
In 1571 Portugal, supported by the Kingdom of Kongo, took control of the south-western region of Angola in order to secure its threatened economic interest in the area.

Pedro I of Kongo

Pedro INkanga a MvembaPedro
In this inquest one can see that factions formed behind prominent men, such as Afonso I's son, Pedro Nkanga a Mvemba and Diogo Nkumbi a Mpudi, his grandson who ultimately overthrew Pedro in 1545.
Pedro I Nkanga a Mvemba was manikongo of the Kingdom of Kongo from 1543 until being deposed in 1545.

Álvaro I of Kongo

Álvaro IAlvaro IÁlvaro I Nimi a Lukeni lua Mvemba
The next manikongo, Henrique I was drawn into a war in the eastern part of the country, where he was killed, leaving the government in the hands of his stepson Álvaro Nimi a Lukeni lua Mvemba.
Álvaro I Nimi a Lukeni lua Mvemba was a Manikongo (Mwene Kongo), or king of Kongo, from 1568 to 1587.