Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolishPolish KingdomKing of PolandJagiellon PolandPolesPolish CrownCrownCrown of the Kingdom of Poland
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie; Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).wikipedia
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Golden Liberty

Golden FreedomsGolden FreedomGolden Liberties
This event marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" members of the Polish nobility.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianGrand Duke of Lithuania
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie; Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
After Vytautas's death, Lithuania's relationship with the Kingdom of Poland greatly deteriorated.

Second Peace of Thorn (1466)

Second Peace of Thornpeace treatySecond Peace of Toruń
The struggles led to a major battle, the Battle of Grunwald of 1410, but there was also the milestone Peace of Thorn of 1466 under King Casimir IV Jagiellon; the treaty created the future Duchy of Prussia. This prevented a takeover of all of Prussia, but in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, the Knights had to surrender the western half of their territory to the Polish Crown (the areas known afterwards as Royal Prussia, a semi-autonomous entity), and to accept Polish-Lithuanian suzerainty over the remainder (the later Ducal Prussia).
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.

Sejm

Sejm 2001-2005Polish ParliamentSejm 1997-2001
The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm in 1505 transferred most of the legislative power in the state from the monarch to the Sejm.
In the Kingdom of Poland, "Sejm" referred to the entire two-chamber parliament of Poland, comprising the Chamber of Envoys (Izba Poselska), the Senate (Polish: Senat) and the King.

Jagiellonian dynasty

Jagiellon dynastyJagiellonJagiellonian
The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin in 1569, which was shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Poland for two centuries.
Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526).

John I Albert

Jan OlbrachtJan I OlbrachtJohn I Olbracht
For example, the Piotrków Privilege of 1496, granted by King Jan I Albert, banned rural land purchases by townspeople and severely limited the ability of peasant farmers to leave their villages.
John I Albert (Jan I Olbracht) (27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).

Duchy of Prussia

Ducal PrussiaPrussiaDuke of Prussia
The struggles led to a major battle, the Battle of Grunwald of 1410, but there was also the milestone Peace of Thorn of 1466 under King Casimir IV Jagiellon; the treaty created the future Duchy of Prussia. This prevented a takeover of all of Prussia, but in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, the Knights had to surrender the western half of their territory to the Polish Crown (the areas known afterwards as Royal Prussia, a semi-autonomous entity), and to accept Polish-Lithuanian suzerainty over the remainder (the later Ducal Prussia).
After losing a war against the Kingdom of Poland, and with his personal bishop, Georg von Polenz of Pomesania and of Samland, who had converted to Lutheranism in 1523, and a number of his commanders already supporting Protestant ideas, Albert began to consider a radical solution.

Kingdom of Poland

PolandPolish KingdomPolish
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie; Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).

Casimir IV Jagiellon

Casimir IVCasimir IV of PolandKazimierz Jagiellończyk
The struggles led to a major battle, the Battle of Grunwald of 1410, but there was also the milestone Peace of Thorn of 1466 under King Casimir IV Jagiellon; the treaty created the future Duchy of Prussia.
Additionally, Casimir promised to protect the Grand Duchy's borders and not to appoint persons from the Polish Kingdom to the offices of the Grand Duchy.

Pospolite ruszenie

levée en masselevee en massemilitary service
The nobility soon excused themselves from their principal duty: mandatory military service in case of war (pospolite ruszenie).
Pospolite ruszenie (, lit. mass mobilization; "Noble Host", the French term levée en masse is also used ) is a name for the mobilisation of armed forces during the period of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Sejmgeneral sejmsejm walny
The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm in 1505 transferred most of the legislative power in the state from the monarch to the Sejm.
After the 1569 Union of Lublin, the Kingdom of Poland was transformed into the federation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the numbers of sejm participants were significantly increased with the inclusion of the deputies from Lithuanian sejmiks.

Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435)

Polish–Teutonic WarPolish–Teutonic War (1431–35)Polish-Teutonic War (1431-1435)
The Polish-Teutonic War of 1431-35 (see Battle of Pabaiskas) was concluded with the Peace of Brześć Kujawski in 1435.
The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights.

Treaty of Melno

Treaty of Lake MelnoPeace of Melno
This stage of the Polish-Lithuanian conflict with the Teutonic Order ended with the Treaty of Melno in 1422.
It was signed on 27 September 1422, between the Teutonic Knights and an alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at Lake Melno (German: Melnosee, Meldensee; Polish: Jezioro Mełno), east of Graudenz (Grudziądz).

Battle of Wilkomierz

Battle of PabaiskasBattle of SwientaBattle of Vilkmergė
The Polish-Teutonic War of 1431-35 (see Battle of Pabaiskas) was concluded with the Peace of Brześć Kujawski in 1435.
With the help of military units from the Kingdom of Poland, the forces of Grand Duke Sigismund Kęstutaitis soundly defeated Švitrigaila and his Livonian allies.

Polish–Lithuanian union

Polish-Lithuanian UnionPoland-LithuaniaPoland–Lithuania
The act arranged for Jogaila's baptism and the couple's marriage, which established the beginning of the Polish-Lithuanian union.

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

Kingdom of PolandPolish CrownPoland
This prevented a takeover of all of Prussia, but in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, the Knights had to surrender the western half of their territory to the Polish Crown (the areas known afterwards as Royal Prussia, a semi-autonomous entity), and to accept Polish-Lithuanian suzerainty over the remainder (the later Ducal Prussia).
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego; Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), known as the Polish Crown, or the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.

Council of Constance

ConstanceCouncil of KonstanzConclave of 1417
One unresolved arbitration took place at the Council of Constance.
It also ruled on issues of national sovereignty, the rights of pagans and just war, in response to a conflict between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland and the Order of the Teutonic Knights.

Pact of Vilnius and Radom

Union of Vilnius and RadomPact of VilniusPolish-Lithuanian alliance
Jogaila's rivalry in Lithuania with his cousin Vytautas the Great, who was opposed to Lithuania's domination by Poland, was settled in 1392 in the Ostrów Agreement and in 1401 in the Union of Vilnius and Radom: Vytautas became the Grand Duke of Lithuania for life under Jogaila's nominal supremacy.
The Pact of Vilnius and Radom (Unia wileńsko-radomska, Vilniaus-Radomo sutartis) was a set of three acts passed in Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and confirmed by the Crown Council in Radom, Kingdom of Poland in 1401.

Livonia

LivlandInflantsLivonian
Poland's and Lithuania's territorial expansion included the far north region of Livonia.
The Livonian Order saw no other way than to seek protection from Sigismund II Augustus, the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who had intervened in a war between Bishop William of Riga and the Brothers in 1557.

Stephen III of Moldavia

Stephen the GreatŞtefan cel MareȘtefan cel Mare
In 1497, King John Albert made an attempt to resolve the Turkish problem militarily, but his efforts were unsuccessful; he was unable to secure effective participation in the war by his brothers, King Vladislas (Władysław) II of Bohemia and Hungary and Alexander, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and he also faced resistance on the part of Stephen the Great, the ruler of Moldavia.
Stephen fled to Hungary, and later to Wallachia, but with the support of Vlad III Dracula, Voivode of Wallachia, he returned to Moldavia, forcing Aaron to seek refuge in Poland in the summer of 1457.

Szlachta

szlachcicnoblePolish nobility
This event marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" members of the Polish nobility.
In the Kingdom of Poland and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ennoblement (nobilitacja) may be equated with an individual given legal status as a szlachcic member of the Polish nobility.

Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars

Muscovite–Lithuanian WarMuscovite-Lithuanian WarsMuscovite wars
Moscow indeed took over many of Lithuania's eastern possessions in military campaigns of 1471, 1492, and 1500.
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars) were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which would later become the Tsardom of Russia.

Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466)

Thirteen Years' WarThirteen Years' War (1454–66)Thirteen Years’ War
Casimir declared a war on the Order and the formal incorporation of Prussia into the Polish Crown; those events led to the Thirteen Years' War of 1454-66.
In January 1454, the year that Casimir IV was married to Elisabeth Habsburg, the Prussian faction asked Casimir IV and protection by the Kingdom of Poland.

Schweipolt Fiol

The world's oldest prints in Cyrillic script, namely religious texts in Old Church Slavonic, appeared after 1490 from the press of Schweipolt Fiol in Kraków.
Fiol spent a considerable part of his life in Poland, particularly Kraków, the capital of the Polish Kingdom at the time.

Nicolaus Copernicus

CopernicusCopernicanNicholas Copernicus
Among the university's prominent scholars were Stanisław of Skarbimierz, Paulus Vladimiri and Albert of Brudzewo, Copernicus' teacher.
Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region that had been part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466.