Kingdom of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianPrussian courtPrussiansRoyal PrussianPrussian KingdomKing of PrussiaPrussian state PrussiaPrussian government
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.wikipedia
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Unification of Germany

German unificationunificationunified Germany
It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918.
Princes of the German states, excluding Austria, gathered there to proclaim William I of Prussia as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918.
As these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War.

Frederick the Great

Frederick II of PrussiaFrederick IIFriedrich II of Prussia
Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more commonly known as Frederick the Great, who was the third son of Frederick William I.
Frederick II (Friedrich II.; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king, at 46 years.

Berlin

Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933), and the Third Reich (1933–1945).

Seven Years' War

Seven Years’ WarSeven Years WarThe Seven Years' War
Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also named Hanover), and a few other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, including the Electorate of Saxony and most of the smaller German states, the Russian Empire (until 1762), the Kingdom of Spain, and Sweden.

Austro-Prussian War

War of 1866Seven Weeks' WarAustro-Prussian
Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states, Prussia and Austria.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

Prussia (region)

PrussiaPrussianOld Prussia
Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.
The unity of both parts of Prussia remained preserved by retaining its borders, citizenship and autonomy until western and eastern Prussia were also politically reunited under the German Kingdom of Prussia (which despite the name was based in Berlin, Brandenburg).

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire (and later, the Third French Republic) and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman states
Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states, Prussia and Austria. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more closely unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting its own constitution.
The Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic WarNapoleonicwar with France
After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more closely unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting its own constitution.
Concerned about increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia, Saxony and Sweden, and the resumption of war in October 1806.

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg

Frederick WilliamFrederick William of BrandenburgFrederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg
Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector".
His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalian political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his son and successor.

Militarism

militaristicmilitaristmilitarists
The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, and made way for the current setup of the German states.
Prominent examples include the Ancient Assyrian Empire, the Greek city state of Sparta, the Roman Empire, the Aztec nation, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Habsburg/Habsburg-Lorraine Monarchies, the Ottoman Empire, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, the United States of America, Nazi Germany, the Italian Empire during the rule of Benito Mussolini, the German Empire, the British Empire, and the First French Empire under Napoleon.

Free State of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianState of Prussia
However, the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen), which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The new state was a direct successor to the Kingdom of Prussia, but featured a democratic, republican government and smaller area based on territorial changes after the war.

Brandenburg-Prussia

BrandenburgPrussiaBrandenburgian
Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg, known as "Brandenburg-Prussia".
From 1701 onward, the Hohenzollern domains were referred to as the Kingdom of Prussia, or simply Prussia.

House of Hohenzollern

HohenzollernHohenzollernsHohenzollern dynasty
The kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern.
The House of Hohenzollern (, also, ) is a German royal dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
However, the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen), which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The biggest challenges to this were Britain's withdrawal into so-called splendid isolation, the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the post-1848 rise of Prussia under Otto von Bismarck.

Margraviate of Brandenburg

BrandenburgElectorate of BrandenburgMarch of Brandenburg
Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.
The resulting Brandenburg-Prussia was the predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia, which became a leading German state during the 18th century.

Brandenburg

State of BrandenburgBrandenburg, GermanyBB
However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, and allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
In the 15th century Brandenburg came under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern, who later also became the rulers of the Duchy of Prussia, who established Brandenburg-Prussia to become the core of the later Kingdom of Prussia.

List of monarchs of Prussia

King of PrussiaDuke of PrussiaKings of Prussia
The kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern.
This complex situation (where the Hohenzollern ruler of the independent Duchy of Prussia was also a subject of the Holy Roman Emperor as Elector of Brandenburg) laid the eventual groundwork for the establishment of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

Albert, Duke of Prussia

Albert of PrussiaAlbertAlbert of Brandenburg-Ansbach
In 1525, Albrecht of Brandenburg, the last grand master of the Teutonic Order, secularized his territory and converted it into a duchy.
Although he had some trouble with the peasantry, the confiscation of the lands and treasures of the Catholic Church enabled him to propitiate the nobles and provide for the expenses of the newly established Prussian court.

Personal union

personalUnionunited
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg, known as "Brandenburg-Prussia".

Teutonic Order

Teutonic KnightsTeutonicTeutonic Knight
In 1525, Albrecht of Brandenburg, the last grand master of the Teutonic Order, secularized his territory and converted it into a duchy.
A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms; this image was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia and Germany as the Iron Cross and Pour le Mérite.

Reactionary

reactionariesreactionreactionism
The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, and made way for the current setup of the German states.
With the Congress of Vienna, inspired by Tsar Alexander I of Russia, the monarchs of Russia, Prussia and Austria formed the Holy Alliance, a form of collective security against revolution and Bonapartism.

Prussian Army

Royal Prussian ArmyPrussianArmy
The Great Elector incorporated the Junkers, the landed aristocracy, into the empire's bureaucracy and military machine, giving them a vested interest in the Prussian Army and compulsory education.
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.