Kingdom of the Suebi

SuebiSuebic KingdomGaliciaKingdomSuebicSueviSuevic Kingdomfirst independent Christian kingdomKing of GaliciaKingdom in Galicia
The Kingdom of the Suebi (Regnum Suevorum), also called the Kingdom of Gallæcia (Regnum Gallæciae), was a Germanic post-Roman kingdom that was one of the first to separate from the Roman Empire.wikipedia
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Gallaecia

GaliciaCalaicians or GallaeciGallaecian
Based in the former Roman provinces of Gallaecia and northern Lusitania, the de facto kingdom was established by the Suebi about 409, and during the 6th century it became a formally declared kingdom identifying with Gallaecia.
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.

Suebi

SueviSuevicSueves
Based in the former Roman provinces of Gallaecia and northern Lusitania, the de facto kingdom was established by the Suebi about 409, and during the 6th century it became a formally declared kingdom identifying with Gallaecia.
By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, and in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and briefly overran Hispania, where they eventually established the Kingdom of the Suebi.

Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothic
It maintained its independence until 585, when it was annexed by the Visigoths, and was turned into the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania.
A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had previously ruled there, particularly in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi.

Orosius

Paulus OrosiusPaul OrosiusPaulus Orosius’s
The argument for this theory, however, is based solely on the disappearance the Quadi in the text and the emergence of the Suevi, which conflicts with the testimony of other contemporary authors, such as Orosius, who did indeed cite the Suevi among the peoples traversing the Rhine in 406, and side by side with Quadi, Marcomanni, Vandals and Sarmatians in another passage.
It is possible that he was born in Bracara Augusta (now Braga, Portugal), then capital of the Roman province of Gallaecia, and which would be the capital of the Kingdom of the Suebi by his death.

Visigothic Kingdom

VisigothsVisigothicKing
It maintained its independence until 585, when it was annexed by the Visigoths, and was turned into the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania.
By 500, the Visigothic Kingdom, centered at Toulouse, controlled Gallia Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis and most of Hispania with the exception of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia in the northwest and small areas controlled by independent iberian peoples, such as the Basques and the Cantabrians.

Braga

BracaraBracarenseBraga, Portugal
Soon Braga would become their capital, later expanding into Astorga, and in the region of Lugo and in the valley of the Minho river, with no evidence suggesting that the Suevi inhabited any other cities in the province prior to 438. At his request, the kingdom of Galicia was divided in two provinces or synods, under the obedience of the metropolitans Braga and Lugo, and thirteen episcopal sees, some of them new, for which new bishops were ordered, others old: Iria Flavia, Britonia, Astorga, Ourense and Tui, in the north, under the obedience of Lugo; and Dume, Porto, Viseu, Lamego, Coimbra and Idanha-a-Velha in the south, dependent of Braga.
In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia covering what is present-day's Northern half of Portugal, Galicia and Asturias, which they maintained as Gallaecia, and had Bracara as their capital.

Pontevedra

pontevedrPontevedra (city)Ria de Pontevedra
The division of Galicia between the Suevi and the Hasding Vandals placed the Suevi in the west of the province, by the Atlantic Ocean shores, most probably in lands now between the cities of Porto in Portugal, in the south, and Pontevedra in Galicia, in the north.
Well-connected since Roman times, Pontevedra consolidated itself as an intermediate town during the Suebic period (circa 5th-6th century AD).

Astorga, Spain

AstorgaAsturica AugustaAsturica
Soon Braga would become their capital, later expanding into Astorga, and in the region of Lugo and in the valley of the Minho river, with no evidence suggesting that the Suevi inhabited any other cities in the province prior to 438. Theodoric continued his war on the Suevi for three months, but in April 459 he returned to Gaul, alarmed by the political and military movements of the new emperor, Majorian, and of the magister militum Ricimer—a half-Sueve, maybe a kinsman of Rechiar —while his allies and the rest of the Goths sacked Astorga, Palencia and other places, on their way back to the Pyrenees. At his request, the kingdom of Galicia was divided in two provinces or synods, under the obedience of the metropolitans Braga and Lugo, and thirteen episcopal sees, some of them new, for which new bishops were ordered, others old: Iria Flavia, Britonia, Astorga, Ourense and Tui, in the north, under the obedience of Lugo; and Dume, Porto, Viseu, Lamego, Coimbra and Idanha-a-Velha in the south, dependent of Braga.
Astorga was sacked by the Visigothic King Theodoric II sometime during time of his throne. On 5 October 456, at the Battle at the Campus Paramus, 12 mi from Astorga on the Urbicus (Órbigo), Theoderic II, Eighth Visigoth King from 453 to 466 AD, leads an army into Spain and defeats Rechiar, Suebic King of Galicia from 488 to 12/456. During the waves of invasion of the peninsula by the Germanic tribes, one bishop was the noted Turibio. He documented the conversion of the Suebic King Remismund to Arianism, and worked to restore the churches destroyed by the Visigoths. The bishop was able to travel to Rome, from which he brought back what is believed to be a relic of the True Cross, for which he founded the Monastery of Santo Toribio de Liébana, where it is still preserved. Because Romans had control of the city, Christianity became very popular in this area during the early church. There is a legend that Santiago and St. Paul both preached in Astorga and there is proof that there was a bishopric around the 3rd century. At the very beginning of Leo I's pontificate, in the years 444-447, Turribius, the bishop of Astorga in León, sent to Rome a memorandum warning that Priscillianism was by no means dead, reporting that it numbered even bishops among its supporters, and asking the aid of the Roman See. The distance was insurmountable in the 5th century. Germanic tribes, the Visigoths, took control over Astorga and destroyed the Roman city. However, it prospered with the help of Saints Toribio, Fructuoso, and Valerio.

Remismund

In 464, Remismund, an ambassador who had travelled between Galicia and Gaul on several occasions, became King.
Remismund (or Rimismund) (died 469) was the Suevic king of Galicia from c. 464 until his death.

Majorian

Flavius Julius Valerius MajorianusJulius Majorianus AugustusMajorien
Theodoric continued his war on the Suevi for three months, but in April 459 he returned to Gaul, alarmed by the political and military movements of the new emperor, Majorian, and of the magister militum Ricimer—a half-Sueve, maybe a kinsman of Rechiar —while his allies and the rest of the Goths sacked Astorga, Palencia and other places, on their way back to the Pyrenees.
His generals launched a campaign against the Suebic Kingdom in northwest Hispania, defeating them at the battles of Lucus Augusti and Scallabis and reducing them to federate status as well.

Portugal

Portuguese🇵🇹POR
More trustworthy is a stone inscription found in Portugal, recording the foundation of a church by a nun, in 535, under the rule of one Veremund who is addressed as the most serene king Veremund, although this inscription has also been attributed to king Bermudo II of León.
The Kingdom of the Suebi was the Germanic post-Roman kingdom, established in the former Roman provinces of Gallaecia-Lusitania.

Hispania

SpainRomanRomans
But in the spring of 409, Gerontius led a revolt in Hispania and set up his own emperor, Maximus.
Only the Kingdom of the Suebi would endure after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans.

Britonia

British CeltsBretonBrythonic language
Sometime late in the 5th century or early in the sixth century, a group of Romano-Britons escaping the Anglo-Saxons settled in the north of the Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia, in lands which subsequently acquired the name Britonia. At his request, the kingdom of Galicia was divided in two provinces or synods, under the obedience of the metropolitans Braga and Lugo, and thirteen episcopal sees, some of them new, for which new bishops were ordered, others old: Iria Flavia, Britonia, Astorga, Ourense and Tui, in the north, under the obedience of Lugo; and Dume, Porto, Viseu, Lamego, Coimbra and Idanha-a-Velha in the south, dependent of Braga.
It was established in the Kingdom of the Suebi, in the Roman Gallaecia, northwestern Hispania, in the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD by Romano-Britons escaping the Anglo-Saxons, who were conquering Britain.

Tui, Pontevedra

TuiTuyTude
At his request, the kingdom of Galicia was divided in two provinces or synods, under the obedience of the metropolitans Braga and Lugo, and thirteen episcopal sees, some of them new, for which new bishops were ordered, others old: Iria Flavia, Britonia, Astorga, Ourense and Tui, in the north, under the obedience of Lugo; and Dume, Porto, Viseu, Lamego, Coimbra and Idanha-a-Velha in the south, dependent of Braga.
Its original local name, Tude, was mentioned by Pliny the Elder and by Ptolemy in the first century AD. It became an episcopal see no later than the 6th century, during the Suevic rule, when Bishop Anila went to the II Council of Braga.

Chararic (Suebian king)

Chararic
And finally, according to the Frankish historian Gregory of Tours, an otherwise unknown sovereign named Chararic, having heard of Martin of Tours, promised to accept the beliefs of the saint if only his son was cured of leprosy.
Chararic or Chararich was the King of Galicia (c. 550 – 558/559) according to Gregory of Tours, who is the only primary source for a Suevic king of this name.

Iria Flavia

Iriabishop of Iria Flaviadiocese of Iria Flavia
At his request, the kingdom of Galicia was divided in two provinces or synods, under the obedience of the metropolitans Braga and Lugo, and thirteen episcopal sees, some of them new, for which new bishops were ordered, others old: Iria Flavia, Britonia, Astorga, Ourense and Tui, in the north, under the obedience of Lugo; and Dume, Porto, Viseu, Lamego, Coimbra and Idanha-a-Velha in the south, dependent of Braga.
To restore Catholic orthodoxy in the Visigothic marches that were recovered from the Kingdom of the Suebi (Galicia) in a series of campaigns during the years leading up to 585, nine dioceses were established in Galicia, including Iria Flavia, mentioned in the document Parroquial suevo (ca 572–582); the Parroquial divides the region into dioceses and marks the first definitive integration of this zone in the monarchy of the Visigoths, who had been catholicized from Arianism in 587 (Quiroga and Lovell 1999).

Martin of Braga

Martinus BracarensisSaint MartinSaint Martin of Braga
On the other hand, the Historia Suevorum of Isidore of Seville states that it was Theodemar who brought about the conversion of his people from Arianism with the help of the missionary Martin of Braga.
Formula vitae honestae, or De differentiis quatuor virtutumvitae honestae (Rules for an Honest Life, or On the Four Cardinal Virtues): addressed to Miro, king of the Sueves. From its similarities to other works of Seneca the Younger modern scholars believe that Martin adapted his work from a lost writing of Seneca. In the twelfth century, an accident caused the loss of the preface attributing the work to Martin, causing scribes and readers to mistakenly identify the treatise as a genuine work by Seneca. Over the next three centuries, Formula vitae honestae was mistakenly used alongside the Epistle to Seneca the Younger as proof for Seneca's adherence to Christianity.

Galicia (Spain)

GaliciaGalicianGalicians
In modern Galicia, four parishes and six towns and villages are still named Suevos or Suegos, from the medieval form Suevos, all of them from the Latin Sueuos 'Sueves', and referring to old Suevi settlements.
Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, and was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD. In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga (Portugal); this kingdom was incorporated into that of the Visigoths in 585.

Ruccones

This same year of 572 Miro led an expedition against the Runcones.
In 572 Miro, the king of the Suevi of Galicia, campaigned against the Ruccones, as much to prevent them from falling under the sway of the Visigoths as to reassert his own sovereignty over them.

Galician language

GalicianGalician speakingGallego
As the Suebi quickly adopted the local Vulgar Latin language, few traces were left of their Germanic tongue in the Galician and Portuguese languages.
Historically, the Galician-Portuguese language originated from Vulgar Latin as a Western Romance language in the lands now in Galicia, Asturias and northern half of Portugal, which belonged to the mediaeval Kingdom of Galicia, itself comprising approximately the former Roman territory of Gallaecia as modified during the two centuries of the Suevic Kingdom of Galicia.

Germanic personal names in Galicia

personal names borne by the Suevestheir personal and land namestoponymy and onomastics
Most notable were their contributions to local toponymy and anthroponymy, as personal names borne by the Sueves were in use among Galicians up to the Low Middle Ages, while East Germanic names in general were most common among locals during the High Middle Ages.
This article deals with Germanic personal names recorded and used in Galicia, northern Portugal and its adjoining regions: territories of the kingdom of the Suebi during the early Middle Ages from its 409 settlement to the 12th century.

Liuvigild

LeovigildKing LeovigildSiege of Seville (583)
During his time, the Suevic kingdom was challenged again by the Visigoths who, under their king Leovigild, were reconstituting their kingdom, reduced and mostly ruled by foreigners since their defeat by the Franks in the Battle of Vouillé.
In 576, he marched on the Kingdom of the Suebi in northwestern Hispania, but king Miro managed to negotiate a peace with Liuvigild.

Romano-British culture

Romano-BritishRomano-BritonsRomano-Celtic
Sometime late in the 5th century or early in the sixth century, a group of Romano-Britons escaping the Anglo-Saxons settled in the north of the Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia, in lands which subsequently acquired the name Britonia.
Some of the Romano-British people migrated to Brittany, the Kingdom of the Suebi and possibly Ireland.

Idanha-a-Velha

Idanhadiocese of EgitâniaEgitandiorum
At his request, the kingdom of Galicia was divided in two provinces or synods, under the obedience of the metropolitans Braga and Lugo, and thirteen episcopal sees, some of them new, for which new bishops were ordered, others old: Iria Flavia, Britonia, Astorga, Ourense and Tui, in the north, under the obedience of Lugo; and Dume, Porto, Viseu, Lamego, Coimbra and Idanha-a-Velha in the south, dependent of Braga.
The presence of a primitive basilica (Roman church) constructed in the 4th century influenced King Theodemar (Theodemer) of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia (+570) to choose this town as see when he created the Diocese of Egitânia no later than 559–569.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribeGermanic tribes
The Kingdom of the Suebi (Regnum Suevorum), also called the Kingdom of Gallæcia (Regnum Gallæciae), was a Germanic post-Roman kingdom that was one of the first to separate from the Roman Empire.