Kinship

kinship systemsciondescendantskinrelativeslineagedescendantdescentrelativemoieties
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.wikipedia
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Descent

Descent (disambiguation)
Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, lineage, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship.

Robin Fox

Fox
Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of lifemating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc."
Robin Fox (born 1934) is an Anglo-American anthropologist who has written on the topics of incest avoidance, marriage systems, human and primate kinship systems, evolutionary anthropology, sociology and the history of ideas in the social sciences.

Fictive kinship

fictive kinfictiveuncle by courtesy
Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, lineage, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship.
Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties.

Family

familiesgrandsonfamilial
Family relations can be represented concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or abstractly by degrees of relationship (kinship distance).
Although early western cultural anthropologists and sociologists considered family and kinship to be universally associated with relations by "blood" (based on ideas common in their own cultures) later research has shown that many societies instead understand family through ideas of living together, the sharing of food (e.g. milk kinship) and sharing care and nurture.

Nurture kinship

Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage), or co-residence/shared consumption (see Nurture kinship).
The concept of nurture kinship in the anthropological study of human social relationships (kinship) highlights the extent to which such relationships are brought into being through the performance of various acts of nurture between individuals.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
The study of kinship and social organization is a central focus of sociocultural anthropology, as kinship is a human universal.

Consanguinity

consanguineousblood relativeconsanguine
Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, lineage, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship. Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage), or co-residence/shared consumption (see Nurture kinship).
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas ) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.

Lewis H. Morgan

Lewis Henry MorganLewis MorganMorgan
One of the foundational works in the anthropological study of kinship was Morgan's Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family (1871).
He is best known for his work on kinship and social structure, his theories of social evolution, and his ethnography of the Iroquois.

Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
Broadly, kinship patterns may be considered to include people related by both descent – i.e. social relations during development – and by marriage.
In a wide array of lineage-based societies with a classificatory kinship system, potential spouses are sought from a specific class of relative as determined by a prescriptive marriage rule.

Iroquois kinship

IroquoisBifurcate mergingIroquois kinship system
Societies with the Iroquois kinship system, are typically unilineal, while the Iroquois proper are specifically matrilineal.
Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system named after the Haudenosaunee people that were previously known as Iroquois and whose kinship system was the first one described to use this particular type of system.

Omaha kinship

OmahaOmaha I
Omaha kinship is the system of terms and relationships used to define family in Omaha tribal culture.

Crow kinship

CrowCrow system
Crow kinship is a kinship system used to define family.

Eskimo kinship

EskimoLineal kinship
Societies with the Eskimo kinship system, like the Inuit, Yupik, and most Western societies, are typically bilateral.
Eskimo kinship or Inuit kinship is a category of kinship used to define family organization in anthropology.

Affinity (law)

son-in-lawaffinitydaughter-in-law
Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, lineage, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship. Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage), or co-residence/shared consumption (see Nurture kinship).
In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity is the kinship relationship created or that exists between two people as a result of someone's marriage.

Sudanese kinship

SudaneseSudanese" or "descriptive
Sudanese kinship, also referred to as the descriptive system, is a kinship system used to define family.

Hawaiian kinship

HawaiianHawaiian concept of kinshipkinship
Societies can also consider descent to be ambilineal (such as Hawaiian kinship) where offspring determine their lineage through the matrilineal line or the patrilineal line.
Hawaiian kinship, also referred to as the generational system, is a kinship system used to define family.

Australian Aboriginal kinship

skin nameskin groupkinship
Most Australian Aboriginal kinship is also classificatory.
There are systems with two such groupings (these are known as 'moieties' in kinship studies), systems with four (sections), six and eight (subsection systems).

Kinsman

kinsmenKinsman (disambiguation)
A kinsman is a male relative (see kinship).

Kinship terminology

kinship termskinship termkinship
Kinship can also refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into social groups, roles, categories and genealogy by means of kinship terminologies.
Kinship terminology is the system used in languages to refer to the persons to whom an individual is related through kinship.

Matrilineality

matrilinealmatrilinematrilineally
Societies can also consider descent to be ambilineal (such as Hawaiian kinship) where offspring determine their lineage through the matrilineal line or the patrilineal line. With matrilineal descent individuals belong to their mother's descent group.
Matrilineality is the tracing of kinship through the female line.

Patrilineality

patrilinealagnaticPatrilineal descent
Societies can also consider descent to be ambilineal (such as Hawaiian kinship) where offspring determine their lineage through the matrilineal line or the patrilineal line. With patrilineal descent, individuals belong to their father's descent group.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

Social group

groupsocial groupsgroups
Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage), or co-residence/shared consumption (see Nurture kinship). Kinship can also refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into social groups, roles, categories and genealogy by means of kinship terminologies.
Characteristics shared by members of a group may include interests, values, representations, ethnic or social background, and kinship ties.

Unilineality

unilineal descentunilinealunilineage
A unilineal society is one in which the descent of an individual is reckoned either from the mother's or the father's line of descent.
Unilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline).

Scottish clan

clanclansScottish clans
Examples of clans are found in Chechen, Chinese, Irish, Japanese, Polish, Scottish, Tlingit, and Somali societies.
A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, primarily meaning "children" and secondarily meaning "kindred", a clan as an extension of this, see also cinneadh) is a kinship group among the Scottish people.

Clan

clanssub-clanclan name
A clan is generally a descent group claiming common descent from an apical ancestor.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.