# Kirchhoff's circuit laws

Kirchhoff's current lawKirchhoff's voltage lawKirchhoff's lawsKVLKCLKirchhoffKirchhoff's junction ruleKirchhoff's second lawKirchhoff’s voltage lawcircuit laws
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.wikipedia
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### Voltage

potential differenceVvoltages
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.
, but more often simply as V, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

### Gustav Kirchhoff

KirchhoffGustav Robert KirchhoffGustav R. Kirchhoff
They were first described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.
Kirchhoff formulated his circuit laws, which are now ubiquitous in electrical engineering, in 1845, while still a student.

### Electrical network

circuitelectrical circuitelectric circuit
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

### Network analysis (electrical circuits)

circuit theorycircuit analysisnetwork analysis
These laws can be applied in time and frequency domains and form the basis for network analysis.
3. Write a KCL equation for every node except the reference.

### Nodal analysis

The current law is used with Ohm's law to perform nodal analysis.
In analyzing a circuit using Kirchhoff's circuit laws, one can either do nodal analysis using Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) or mesh analysis using Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL).

### Lumped-element model

lumped element modellumpedlumped component
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.
The first two assumptions result in Kirchhoff's circuit laws when applied to Maxwell's equations and are only applicable when the circuit is in steady state.

### Computational electromagnetics

Electromagnetic modelingcomputational electrodynamicselectromagnetic simulation
If frequencies are too high, it may be more appropriate to simulate the fields directly using finite element modelling or other techniques.
In the PEEC method, the integral equation is interpreted as Kirchhoff's voltage law applied to a basic PEEC cell which results in a complete circuit solution for 3D geometries.

### Equality (mathematics)

equalityequalequalities
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

### Georg Ohm

Georg Simon OhmOhmOhm, Georg
This generalized the work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of James Clerk Maxwell.

### James Clerk Maxwell

MaxwellJ. C. MaxwellJames Maxwell
This generalized the work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of James Clerk Maxwell.

### Electrical engineering

electrical engineerelectricalElectrical and Electronics Engineering
Widely used in electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws.

### Maxwell's equations

Maxwell equationsMaxwell equationMaxwell’s equations
Both of Kirchhoff's laws can be understood as corollaries of Maxwell's equations in the low-frequency limit. In the low-frequency limit, this is a corollary of Faraday's law of induction (which is one of Maxwell's equations).

### Electric current

currentelectrical currentcurrents
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

### Matrix (mathematics)

matrixmatricesmatrix theory
A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software, such as SPICE.

### Electronic circuit simulation

circuit simulationcircuit simulatorelectronics simulation
A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software, such as SPICE.

### SPICE

HSPICEcircuit simulationcomputer models
A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software, such as SPICE.

### Ohm's law

ohmicOhmohmic losses
The current law is used with Ohm's law to perform nodal analysis.

In the low-frequency limit, this is a corollary of Faraday's law of induction (which is one of Maxwell's equations).

### Simply connected space

simply connectedsimply-connectedmultiply connected

### Conservative force

conservativenon-conservativenon-conservative force

### Static electricity

static chargestaticstatic electric
This has practical application in situations involving "static electricity".

### Capacitive coupling

AC couplingAC-coupledcapacitively coupled
Whenever the electric field between parts of the circuit is non-negligible, such as when two wires are capacitively coupled, this may not be the case.

### Transmission line

transmission linestransmissiontransmission-line
For example, in a transmission line, the charge density in the conductor will constantly be oscillating.

### Finite element method

finite element analysisfinite elementfinite elements
If frequencies are too high, it may be more appropriate to simulate the fields directly using finite element modelling or other techniques.

### Parasitic capacitance

parasiticcapacitanceinline capacitor
Real conductors can be modeled in terms of lumped elements by considering parasitic capacitances distributed between the conductors to model capacitive coupling, or parasitic (mutual) inductances to model inductive coupling.