Klement Gottwald

GottwaldPresident GottwaldGottwaldaGottwaldovaKlement GotvaldKlementa Gottwalda
Klement Gottwald (23 November 1896 – 14 March 1953) was a Czechoslovak Communist politician, who was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until 1945 and party chairman until his death in 1953.wikipedia
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Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCommunistKSČ
Klement Gottwald (23 November 1896 – 14 March 1953) was a Czechoslovak Communist politician, who was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until 1945 and party chairman until his death in 1953. In February 1929, at the Fifth Congress of the KSČ, Gottwald was elected party general secretary, alongside Guttmann, Šverma, Slansky, Kopecky and the Reimans (known as "the Karlin boys").
Between 1929 and 1953 it was led by Klement Gottwald.

List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia

PresidentPresident of CzechoslovakiaPresidents
He was the 14th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from July 1946 until June 1948, at which point he became the president of the third republic, four months after the 1948 coup d'état in which his party seized power with the backing of the Soviet Union.
However, three general secretaries (Klement Gottwald, Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák) also served as president at some point in their tenures.

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Communist coupcoup d'état1948 coup d'état
He was the 14th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from July 1946 until June 1948, at which point he became the president of the third republic, four months after the 1948 coup d'état in which his party seized power with the backing of the Soviet Union.
Nonetheless, party leader Klement Gottwald said in 1945 that "in spite of the favourable situation, the next goal is not soviets and socialism, but rather carrying out a really thorough democratic national revolution", thereby linking his party to the Czechoslovak democratic tradition (he even claimed to be a disciple of Tomáš Masaryk) and to Czech nationalism by capitalizing on popular intense anti-German feelings.

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

CzechoslovakiaČSSRcommunist Czechoslovakia
He was the 14th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from July 1946 until June 1948, at which point he became the president of the third republic, four months after the 1948 coup d'état in which his party seized power with the backing of the Soviet Union.
Klement Gottwald, leader of the KSČ, became Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia.

Ludvík Svoboda

Czechoslovak General Ludvík SvobodaGeneral in command of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, Ludvík SvobodaSvoboda
It is believed that he fought in the Battle of Zborov, which would mean that he fought there against future General and President Ludvík Svoboda, who fought on the side of the Czechoslovak Legion.
Trusted by Klement Gottwald's exile leadership and Soviet functionaries, he quickly climbed the military ranks, becoming army general in August 1945.

List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Czechoslovakiacomplete list
He was the 14th Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from July 1946 until June 1948, at which point he became the president of the third republic, four months after the 1948 coup d'état in which his party seized power with the backing of the Soviet Union.

Rudolf Slánský

SlánskýSlanskySlánský show trial
In February 1929, at the Fifth Congress of the KSČ, Gottwald was elected party general secretary, alongside Guttmann, Šverma, Slansky, Kopecky and the Reimans (known as "the Karlin boys"). Prominent Communists who became victims of these purges and were defendants in the Prague Trials included Rudolf Slánský, the party's general secretary, Vlado Clementis (the Foreign Minister) and Gustáv Husák (the leader of an administrative body responsible for Slovakia), who was dismissed from office for "bourgeois nationalism".
He rose within the party and became a senior lieutenant of its leader, Klement Gottwald.

1948 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

194830 May electionsCzechoslovak parliamentary elections
While it was not a completely Communist document, its Communist imprint was strong enough that Beneš refused to sign it. Later that month, elections were held in which voters were presented with a single list from the National Front, now a Communist-controlled patriotic organization.
Nosek refused, and was supported by Prime Minister and Communist Party leader Klement Gottwald.

Slánský trial

Slánský show trialanti-Semitismhuge political trial
Prominent Communists who became victims of these purges and were defendants in the Prague Trials included Rudolf Slánský, the party's general secretary, Vlado Clementis (the Foreign Minister) and Gustáv Husák (the leader of an administrative body responsible for Slovakia), who was dismissed from office for "bourgeois nationalism".
Klement Gottwald, president of Czechoslovakia and leader of the Communist Party, feared being purged, and decided to sacrifice Slánský, a longtime collaborator and personal friend who was the second-in-command of the party.

Jan Masaryk

JanDeath of a DemocratMasaryk
The other parties were still nominally represented, but with the exception of Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk they were fellow travellers handpicked by the Communists.
The Communists under Klement Gottwald saw their position strengthened after the 1946 elections but Masaryk stayed on as Foreign Minister.

National Monument at Vítkov

National MonumentA monumentstatue of Jan Žižka
Gottwald's body was initially displayed in a mausoleum at the site of the Jan Žižka national monument in the district of Žižkov, Prague.
Between 1954-1962 it housed the mausoleum of Klement Gottwald.

Edvard Beneš

BenešPresident BenešBeneš, Edvard
In 1943 Gottwald agreed with representatives of the Czechoslovak-government-in-exile located in London, along with President Edvard Beneš, to unify domestic and foreign anti-fascist resistance and form the National Front.
Upon arriving, Beneš announced a coalition government had been formed called the National Front, with the Communist Party leader Klement Gottwald as prime minister.

Zmiiv

ZmiyevZmiyov
Zmiiv, a city in Kharkiv Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, was named Gotvald after him from 1976 to 1990.
Between 1976 and 1990, the city was renamed after Klement Gottwald, a Czechoslovak politician, to Gotwald .

Zlín

GottwaldovZlineZliner Flugzeugwerke AG
In tribute, Zlín, a city in Moravia, now the Czech Republic, was renamed Gottwaldov after him from 1949 to 1990.
Zlín was renamed Gottwaldov in 1949 – after the first communist president of Czechoslovakia – Klement Gottwald.

Order of Klement Gottwald

Order of Klement Gottwald for Building of Socialist Homeland
Order of Klement Gottwald
The Order of Klement Gottwald was awarded by the President of the Republic.

The Book of Laughter and Forgetting

Book of Laughter and Forgetting
In a famous photograph from 21 February 1948, described also in The Book of Laughter and Forgetting by Milan Kundera, Clementis stands next to Gottwald.
Kundera also describes a photograph from 21 February 1948, where Vladimír Clementis stands next to Klement Gottwald.

Embalming

embalmedembalmerembalm
There are accounts that in 1962 Gottwald's body had blackened and was decomposing due to a botched embalming, although other witnesses have disputed this.
Various communist leaders have been embalmed and put on public display. Perhaps the most famous embalmed body of the 20th century is that of Vladimir Lenin, which continues to draw crowds decades after his death in 1924, and is seen in his Moscow mausoleum. Joseph Stalin was also embalmed and placed next to Lenin, but his body was buried in 1961 during de-Stalinization. Klement Gottwald of Czechoslovakia, who died just five days after attending Stalin's funeral, was embalmed and displayed in a mausoleum at National Monument in Vitkov in Prague. However, in 1962 due to a botched embalming, the body was decomposing, and was removed and cremated. Bulgarian Georgi Dimitrov was embalmed and placed on display in the Sofia Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum. After the fall of Communism in Bulgaria, his body was buried in 1990 in the Central cemetery of Sofia. Mongolia's Khorloogiin Choibalsan, Angola's Agostinho Neto and Guyana's Forbes Burnham were also embalmed by the same Russian team. Currently, embalmed communist leaders can also be found in the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, and the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun for Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.

Vladimír Clementis

Vlado Clementisclement-Clementis
Prominent Communists who became victims of these purges and were defendants in the Prague Trials included Rudolf Slánský, the party's general secretary, Vlado Clementis (the Foreign Minister) and Gustáv Husák (the leader of an administrative body responsible for Slovakia), who was dismissed from office for "bourgeois nationalism".
In the famous photograph from 21 February 1948 (the story is described in The Book of Laughter and Forgetting by Milan Kundera), Vladimír Clementis stands next to Klement Gottwald, who later, after the coup d'état, became the President of Czechoslovakia.

Antonín Zápotocký

Zápotocký
He was succeeded by Antonín Zápotocký, the Premier of Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953.
Zápotocký became Prime Minister on 15 June 1948, replacing Klement Gottwald, who became President.

Námestie Slobody

Námestie Slobody, Bratislava
Námestie Slobody (Freedom square) in Bratislava was named Gottwaldovo námestie after him.
The square was called Gottwaldovo during socialism in honor of the first Czechoslovak communist president Klement Gottwald, whose statue was included.

Vyškov

Wischau
Klement Gottwald (1896 Vyškov-Dědice - 1953) - Communist politician, President of Czechoslovakia (1948-1953)

History of Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak Czechoslovakia
History of Czechoslovakia
Edvard Beneš continued as president of the republic, whereas the Communist leader Klement Gottwald became prime minister.

Antonín Novotný

NovotnýAntonín Novotný Jr.Novotny
After the death of party leader Klement Gottwald in March 1953, Novotný became a leading candidate in the succession struggle, ultimately winning out in September 1953 when he was named First Secretary of the party—effectively making him the leader of Czechoslovakia.

Zdeněk Fierlinger

On 10 May 1945 Gottwald returned to Prague as the deputy premier under Zdeněk Fierlinger and as the chairman of the National Front.
During his period in Moscow Fierlinger was very close to the leadership of the Czechoslovak Communist Party led by Klement Gottwald.

Bohumil Jílek

Deposed by Klement Gottwald, he joined a new parliamentary club called Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Leninists).