A report on Knight and Mace (bludgeon)

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
Various Eastern maces, from left: Bozdogan/buzdygan (Ottoman), tabar-shishpar (Indian), shishpar (Indian), shishpar (unknown), gurz (Indian), shishpar (Indian).
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
A mural of Bhima with his mace
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
A prehistoric earthenware mace found in central Serbia
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
Moche stone maces. Larco Museum Collection (Lima-Peru)
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
Calcite mace head, 7-6th millennium BC, Syria
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Assyrian soldier holding a mace and a bow. Detail of a basalt relief from the palace of Tiglath-pileser III at Hadatu, Syria. 744–727 BCE. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Pernach (left) and two shestopyors
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
Shestopyor-type mace (in literal translation six-feathers) used by the rotmistrzs of the private army of the Radziwiłł family.
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Mace polearm wielding figurine from the tomb of Ming dynasty prince Zhu Tan, 10th son of the Hongwu Emperor
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
World War I trench raiding club
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Mace of the Royal Society, granted by Charles II
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
Marshal of Poland mace
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Ceremonial maces of the Rector Magnificus of the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, Philippines.
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
Indian shishpar (flanged mace), all steel construction, with eight knife edged, hinged flanges, 18th-19th century, 26 inches long.
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
Indian shishpar (flanged mace), steel with solid shaft and eight flanged head, 24in.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Indian (Deccan) tabar-shishpar, an extremely rare combination tabar axe and shishpar eight flanged mace, steel with hollow shaft, 21.75 in. 17th to 18th century.
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The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.

For a heavily armed Persian knight, a mace was as effective as a sword or battle axe.

- Mace (bludgeon)

Knights used a variety of weapons, including maces, axes and swords.

- Knight
A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

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Historical reenactment of a Sassanid-era cataphract, complete with a full set of scale armor for the horse. The rider is covered by extensive mail armor.

Cataphract

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Form of armored heavy cavalryman that originated in Persia and was fielded in ancient warfare throughout Eurasia and Northern Africa.

Form of armored heavy cavalryman that originated in Persia and was fielded in ancient warfare throughout Eurasia and Northern Africa.

Historical reenactment of a Sassanid-era cataphract, complete with a full set of scale armor for the horse. The rider is covered by extensive mail armor.
Sculpture of a Sasanian cataphract in Taq-e Bostan, Iran. It is One of the oldest depictions of a cataphract.
The extent circa 170 BC of the Iranian Scythians and Parthians, to whom the first recorded use of true cataphract-like cavalry can be attributed in antiquity.
Chanfron, Northern Yan
A stone-etched relief depicting a Parthian cataphract fighting against a lion. Housed in the British Museum.
Three examples of the various styles of interweaving and wire threading that were commonly employed in the creation of cataphract scale armor to form a stiffened, "armored shell" with which to protect the horse.
Breakdown of a fully armoured Chinese cataphract
Equestrian relief at Firuzabad, Iran showing Cataphracts dueling with lances
The cataphract-style parade armor of a Saka (Scythian) royal from the Issyk kurgan, dubbed "Golden Man". The overlapping golden scales are typical of cataphract armor.
Two heavily armored noblemen dueling on horseback with kontos; Sasanian era silver plate with gold coating, Azerbaijan Museum, Tabriz, Iran
A depiction of Sarmatian cataphracts fleeing from Roman cavalry during the Dacian wars circa 101 AD, at Trajan's Column in Rome

Chronicled by many historians from the earliest days of antiquity up until the High Middle Ages, they may have influenced the later European knights, through contact with the Byzantine Empire.

Cataphracts would often be equipped with an additional side-arm such as a sword or mace, for use in the melee that often followed a charge.