A report on Knight and Surcoat

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
The classic knight's surcoat is on the left; the knight on the right has a different style, possibly a jupon
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
Saint Stephen, King of Hungary with a jupon bearing his arms, white and red stripes. Image from the Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
{{circa|1300-1310}}
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
An early example of a sideless surcoat, {{circa|1325-1335}}
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
A sideless surcoat with gaping armholes, late 14th century
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Sideless surcoat edged with ermine, {{circa|1460}}
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
A furred, embellished surcoat worn for ceremonial purposes, 1489-1499
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
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The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.

From about the 12th century, knights wore long, flowing surcoats, frequently emblazoned with their personal arms, over their armor.

- Surcoat

As heavier armour, including enlarged shields and enclosed helmets, developed in the Middle Ages, the need for marks of identification arose, and with coloured shields and surcoats, coat armoury was born.

- Knight
A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

1 related topic with Alpha

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The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late 15th century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest. (See Roll of arms).

Heraldry

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Discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings , as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank and pedigree.

Discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings , as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank and pedigree.

The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late 15th century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest. (See Roll of arms).
Enamel from the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, one of the earliest depictions of modern heraldry.
Two pursuivants wearing tabards, Windsor Castle, 2006.
A shield parted per pale and per fir twig fess. Coat of arms of former Finnish municipality of Varpaisjärvi.
An extravagant example of marshalling: the 719 quarterings of the Grenville Armorial at Stowe House
German heraldry has examples of shields with numerous crests, as this arms of Saxe-Altenburg featuring a total of seven crests. Some thaler coins display as many as fifteen.
Flags as supporters and orders in the armory of the Prince of Vergara.
The coat of arms of Mikkeli, a city of South Savonia, Finland, has been drawn up in honour of the headquarters of the Finnish Army led by Marshal C. G. E. Mannerheim; this was stationed in the city during the Winter War, the Continuation War and the Lapland War. The coat of arms was originally used without the Mannerheim Cross, and is the third coat of arms affixed to the city.
Coat of Arms of the Turiec county in Slovakia.
State Emblem of the Soviet Union (1956-1991 version)
Arms created in 1977, featuring a hydrocarbon molecule
Military coat of arms, depicting a red locomotive.
Reverse of the Narmer Palette, circa 3100 BC. The top row depicts four men carrying standards.  Directly above them is a serekh containing the name of the king, Narmer.
Fresco depicting a shield of a type common in Mycenaean Greece.
Vase with Greek soldiers in armor, circa 550 BC.
A reconstruction of a shield that would have been carried by a Roman Legionary.
Shields from the "Magister Militum Praesentalis II". From the Notitia Dignitatum, a medieval copy of a Late Roman register of military commands.
The death of King Harold, from the Bayeux Tapestry. The shields look heraldic, but do not seem to have been personal or hereditary emblems.

At least two distinctive features of heraldry are generally accepted as products of the crusaders: the surcoat, an outer garment worn over the armor to protect the wearer from the heat of the sun, was often decorated with the same devices that appeared on a knight's shield.

If the armiger has the title of baron, hereditary knight, or higher, he may display a coronet of rank above the shield.