Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledgeknowledgeableknowingknowledgesknowna prioriarivucalled
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.wikipedia
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Information

informativeinputinputs
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Information relates also to knowledge, as knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept.

Education

teachingeducationaleducationist
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research.

Learning

associative learninglearnlearning process
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings.
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.

Discovery (observation)

discoverydiscoveriesdiscovered
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
New discoveries are acquired through various senses and are usually assimilated, merging with pre-existing knowledge and actions.

Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief system
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition. The classical definition, described but not ultimately endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified, true, and believed.
Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, and involved generally with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge.

Wisdom

sapientsapiencewise
In this story, Theuth presents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new invention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians" (Postman, Neil (1992) Technopoly, Vintage, New York, p. 74).
Wisdom, sapience, or sagacity is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
Haraway's argument stems from the limitations of the human perception, as well as the overemphasis of the sense of vision in science.
Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Skepticism

skepticskepticalscepticism
This narrative of situation is historical textures woven of fact and fiction, and as Escobar explains further, "even the most neutral scientific domains are narratives in this sense," insisting that rather than a purpose dismissing science as a trivial matter of contingency, "it is to treat (this narrative) in the most serious way, without succumbing to its mystification as 'the truth' or to the ironic skepticism common to many critiques." Scientific knowledge may not involve a claim to certainty, maintaining skepticism means that a scientist will never be absolutely certain when they are correct and when they are not.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English, and Canadian English) is generally a questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief or dogma.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition. The classical definition, described but not ultimately endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified, true, and believed.
In several of Plato's dialogues, Socrates promulgates the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection of the state before one is born, and not of observation or study.

History

historical recordshistoricalhistoric
Fundamentally, both argue the contingency of knowledge on the presence of history; power, and geography, as well as the rejection of universal rules or laws or elementary structures; and the idea of power as an inherited trait of objectification.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation') is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof.

Inquiry

enquiryinquiries2.25
To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning and experimentation.
An inquirer is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning and experimentation.
The first question is concerning whether we can be confident that reason can achieve knowledge of truth better than other ways of trying to achieve such knowledge.

Robert Nozick

NozickNozick, RobertNozickian
There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert Nozick's arguments for a requirement that knowledge 'tracks the truth' and Simon Blackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet any of these conditions 'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge.
In Philosophical Explanations (1981), which received the Phi Beta Kappa Society's Ralph Waldo Emerson Award, Nozick provided novel accounts of knowledge, free will, personal identity, the nature of value, and the meaning of life.

Trial and error

trial-and-errorgenerate and test trial and error principle
Some methods of generating knowledge, such as trial and error, or learning from experience, tend to create highly situational knowledge.
Trial and error is also a heuristic method of problem solving, repair, tuning, or obtaining knowledge.

Data

statistical datascientific datadatum
The scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.
Although the terms "data", "information" and "knowledge" are often used interchangeably, each of these terms has a distinct meaning.

Truth

trueTruth theorytheory of truth
The classical definition, described but not ultimately endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified, true, and believed.
If a judgment is to be an expression of knowledge, it must have a sufficient reason or ground by which the judgment could be called true.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
The development of the scientific method has made a significant contribution to how knowledge of the physical world and its phenomena is acquired.
Scientific inquiry generally aims to obtain knowledge in the form of testable explanations that scientists can use to

Certainty

certainimperfect knowledgeCertainly
Scientific knowledge may not involve a claim to certainty, maintaining skepticism means that a scientist will never be absolutely certain when they are correct and when they are not.
Certainty is an epistemic property of beliefs closely related to knowledge.

Gnosis

gnosticknowledge of Goddivine origin
In Gnosticism, divine knowledge or gnosis is hoped to be attained.
Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, gnōsis, f.).

Richard Kirkham

Kirkham, Richard L.Kirkham, Richardtheories of truth
Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth.

Gnosticism

GnosticGnosticsGnostic Christianity
In Gnosticism, divine knowledge or gnosis is hoped to be attained.
In a religious context, gnosis is mystical or esoteric knowledge based on direct participation with the divine.

Evidence

evidentiarydisproveevident
To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning and experimentation.
In philosophy, the study of evidence is closely tied to epistemology, which considers the nature of knowledge and how it can be acquired.