Koch's postulates

Koch’s postulatesKoch's postulatepostulatesdemonstrated by inoculation into healthy plantsfour postulatesHenle Koch postulateshis postulatesKoch postulatesKoch's third and fourth postulatesproofs
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.wikipedia
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Robert Koch

KochDr Robert KochKoch, Robert
The postulates were formulated by Robert Koch and Friedrich Loeffler in 1884, based on earlier concepts described by Jakob Henle, and refined and published by Koch in 1890.
His research led to the creation of Koch's postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology.

Microorganism

microorganismsmicrobemicrobes
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.
Based on these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microorganism and a disease and these are now known as Koch's postulates.

Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle

HenleJakob HenleFriedrich Henle
The postulates were formulated by Robert Koch and Friedrich Loeffler in 1884, based on earlier concepts described by Jakob Henle, and refined and published by Koch in 1890.
Those two put up the fundamental rules of cleanly defining disease-causing microbes: the Henle Koch postulates.

Pathogen

pathogenspathogenicpathogenicity
Koch's postulates were developed in the 19th century as general guidelines to identify pathogens that could be isolated with the techniques of the day.
Koch's postulates)''.

Oncovirus

tumor virusCancer virusDNA tumor viruses
The role of oncoviruses in causing some cancers also does not follow Koch's postulates.
The well-known Koch's postulates, 19th-century constructs developed by Robert Koch to establish the likelihood that Bacillus anthracis will cause anthrax disease, are not applicable to viral diseases.

HIV/AIDS denialism

AIDS denialismAIDS denialistAIDS denialists
That HIV causes AIDS does not follow from Koch's postulates, which may have supported HIV/AIDS denialism.
Denialists claim many incompatible things: HIV does not exist; HIV has not been adequately isolated, HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates, HIV testing is inaccurate, and that antibodies to HIV neutralize the virus and render it harmless.

Virology

virologistvirologistsviral ecology
Attempts to rigidly apply Koch's postulates to the diagnosis of viral diseases in the late 19th century, at a time when viruses could not be seen or isolated in culture, may have impeded the early development of the field of virology.
In late 1918, French scientists showed that a "filter-passing virus" could transmit the disease to people and animals, fulfilling Koch's postulates.

Microbiology

microbiologistmicrobiologicalbacteriology
Koch's postulates have played an important role in microbiology, yet they have major limitations.
He developed a series of criteria that have become known as the Koch's postulates.

Molecular Koch's postulates

molecular version
In the 1980s, a molecular version of Koch's postulates was developed to guide the identification of microbial genes encoding virulence factors.
The postulates were formulated by the microbiologist Stanley Falkow in 1988 and are based on Koch's postulates.

Causal inference

causalcausal relationshipslack of one
Historically, Koch's postulates have been used since the 19th century to decide if a microorganism was the cause of a disease.

Mill's Methods

methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variationMethod of agreementMethod of concomitant variations

Causality

causalcause and effectcausation
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.

Friedrich Loeffler

Friedrich LöfflerDr. Friedrich LöfflerLoeffler
The postulates were formulated by Robert Koch and Friedrich Loeffler in 1884, based on earlier concepts described by Jakob Henle, and refined and published by Koch in 1890.

Etiology

aetiologyetiologicalaetiological
Koch applied the postulates to describe the etiology of cholera and tuberculosis, but they have been controversially generalized to other diseases.

Cholera

Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks out
Koch applied the postulates to describe the etiology of cholera and tuberculosis, but they have been controversially generalized to other diseases. However, Koch abandoned the universalist requirement of the first postulate altogether when he discovered asymptomatic carriers of cholera and, later, of typhoid fever.

Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
Koch applied the postulates to describe the etiology of cholera and tuberculosis, but they have been controversially generalized to other diseases.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
These postulates were generated prior to understanding of modern concepts in microbial pathogenesis that cannot be examined using Koch's postulates, including viruses (which are obligate cellular parasites) and asymptomatic carriers.

Asymptomatic carrier

carriercarriershealthy carrier
These postulates were generated prior to understanding of modern concepts in microbial pathogenesis that cannot be examined using Koch's postulates, including viruses (which are obligate cellular parasites) and asymptomatic carriers.

Bradford Hill criteria

Bradford-Hill criteriaA. B. Hill's criteriaBradford Hill" criteria
They have largely been supplanted by other criteria such as the Bradford Hill criteria for infectious disease causality in modern public health.

Typhoid fever

typhoidenteric fevertyphoid pneumonia
However, Koch abandoned the universalist requirement of the first postulate altogether when he discovered asymptomatic carriers of cholera and, later, of typhoid fever.

Asymptomatic

subclinicalsub-clinicalno symptoms
Asymptomatic or subclinical infection carriers are now known to be a common feature of many infectious diseases, especially viral diseases such as polio, herpes simplex, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C.

Subclinical infection

subclinicalasymptomaticasymptomatically
Asymptomatic or subclinical infection carriers are now known to be a common feature of many infectious diseases, especially viral diseases such as polio, herpes simplex, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C.

Polio

poliomyelitisinfantile paralysisparalytic polio
Asymptomatic or subclinical infection carriers are now known to be a common feature of many infectious diseases, especially viral diseases such as polio, herpes simplex, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C.

Herpes simplex

herpesherpes virusesHerpetic sycosis
Asymptomatic or subclinical infection carriers are now known to be a common feature of many infectious diseases, especially viral diseases such as polio, herpes simplex, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C.