Koine Greek

GreekKoineNew Testament GreekBiblical GreekHellenistic GreekKoiné GreekGreek languagekoinéAncient GreekHellenistic
Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity.wikipedia
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Koiné language

koinékoineKoine language
Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common [language]") is a standard or common language or dialect that has arisen to prestige or dominance as a result of the contact, mixing, and often levelling (simplifying) of two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity.
This mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity.
Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science, especially astronomy, mathematics and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed; the New Testament of the Christian Bible was written in Koiné Greek.

Medieval Greek

Byzantine GreekGreekByzantine
As the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire, it developed further into Medieval Greek, which then turned into Modern Greek.
Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and Modern Greek.

New Testament

NewThe New TestamentNew Testaments
Koine is also the language of the Christian New Testament, of the Septuagint (the 3rd-century BC Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible), and of most early Christian theological writing by the Church Fathers.
The New Testament is a collection of Christian texts originally written in the Koine Greek language, at different times by various different authors.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity.
As a consequence of Alexander's conquests, koine Greek had become the shared language around the eastern Mediterranean and into Asia Minor.

Modern Greek

GreekModernModern Greek language
As the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire, it developed further into Medieval Greek, which then turned into Modern Greek.
Strictly speaking, Demotic refers to all popular varieties of Modern Greek that followed a common evolutionary path from Koine and have retained a high degree of mutual intelligibility to the present.

Septuagint

LXXGreek Old TestamentGreek
Koine is also the language of the Christian New Testament, of the Septuagint (the 3rd-century BC Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible), and of most early Christian theological writing by the Church Fathers. Other significant sources are the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, and the Greek New Testament.
It is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Jewish Bible in Hebrew, various biblical apocrypha and deuterocanonical books.

Meditations

The MeditationsThe Meditations of Marcus AureliusGolden Book
The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius also wrote his private thoughts in Koine Greek in a work that is now known as The Meditations.
Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the Meditations in Koine Greek as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement.

Greek Orthodox Church

Greek OrthodoxGreek OrthodoxyGreek
Koine Greek continues to be used as the liturgical language of services in the Greek Orthodox Church.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía, ), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and the New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

Proto-Greek language

Proto-GreekGreekfirst Greek-speaking tribes
Scholars such as Apollonius Dyscolus (second century AD) and Aelius Herodianus (second century AD) maintained the term Koine to refer to the Proto-Greek language, while others used it to refer to any vernacular form of Greek speech which differed somewhat from the literary language.
It is assumed to be the last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.

Ancient Greek dialects

Greek dialectsancient Greek dialectdialect
It replaced existing ancient Greek dialects with an everyday form that people anywhere could understand.
Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several varieties.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries.
Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Roman Empire and the Hellenistic culture.

Ionic Greek

IonicIonic dialectIonian
It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties. Pontic Greek) would have more intense Ionic characteristics than others and those of Laconia and Cyprus would preserve some Doric and Arcadocypriot characteristics, respectively.
This alphabet eventually became the standard Greek alphabet, its use becoming uniform during the Koine era.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

Ptolemaic EgyptPtolemaicEgypt
Under the leadership of Macedon, their newly formed common variety was spoken from the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Seleucid Empire of Mesopotamia.
The era of Ptolemaic reign in Egypt is one of the best-documented time periods of the Hellenistic period; a wealth of papyri written in Koine Greek and Egyptian have been discovered in Egypt.

Attic Greek

AtticAttic dialectClassical Attic
It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties. The first scholars who studied Koine, both in Alexandrian and contemporary times, were classicists whose prototype had been the literary Attic Greek of the Classical period and frowned upon any other variety of Ancient Greek.
The Attic Greek of the philosophers Plato (427–347 BC) and his student Aristotle (384–322 BC) dates to the period of transition between Classical Attic and Koine.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The first scholars who studied Koine, both in Alexandrian and contemporary times, were classicists whose prototype had been the literary Attic Greek of the Classical period and frowned upon any other variety of Ancient Greek.
It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD).

Doric Greek

DoricDoric dialectNorthwest Greek
Pontic Greek) would have more intense Ionic characteristics than others and those of Laconia and Cyprus would preserve some Doric and Arcadocypriot characteristics, respectively.
By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.

Pontic Greek

PonticPontic dialectPontic Greek language
Pontic Greek) would have more intense Ionic characteristics than others and those of Laconia and Cyprus would preserve some Doric and Arcadocypriot characteristics, respectively.
The linguistic lineage of Pontic Greek stems from Ionic Greek via Koine and Byzantine Greek, and contains influences from Georgian, Russian, Turkish and Armenian.

Old Testament

Oldthe Old TestamentBiblical
Other significant sources are the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, and the Greek New Testament.
The second part of Christian Bibles is the New Testament, originally written in the Koine Greek language.

Greek New Testament

GreekNew TestamentGreek manuscripts of the New Testament
Other significant sources are the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, and the Greek New Testament.
The Greek New Testament is the original form of the books that make up the New Testament as they appeared in Koine Greek, the common dialect from 300 BC to 300 AD.

Bible translations into Greek

translation of the New TestamentGreek translations of the Old TestamentNew Testament into modern Greek
The LXX was written in Koine Greek.

Church Fathers

Church FatherFathers of the Churchpatristic
Koine is also the language of the Christian New Testament, of the Septuagint (the 3rd-century BC Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible), and of most early Christian theological writing by the Church Fathers.
He is said to have introduced the Latin term trinitas with regard to the Divine (Trinity) to the Christian vocabulary (but Theophilus of Antioch already wrote of "the Trinity, of God, and His Word, and His wisdom", which is similar but not identical to the Trinitarian wording), and also probably the formula "three Persons, one Substance" as the Latin "tres Personae, una Substantia" (itself from the Koine Greek "τρεῖς ὑποστάσεις, ὁμοούσιος; treis Hypostases, Homoousios"), and also the terms vetus testamentum (Old Testament) and novum testamentum (New Testament).

Alexander the Great

AlexanderAlexander III of MacedonAlexander of Macedon
It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries.
The close association of men from across Greece in Alexander's army directly led to the emergence of the largely Attic-based "koine", or "common" Greek dialect.

Arcadocypriot Greek

ArcadocypriotArcado-CypriotArcadian
Pontic Greek) would have more intense Ionic characteristics than others and those of Laconia and Cyprus would preserve some Doric and Arcadocypriot characteristics, respectively.