Korea

Satellite image of Korea
A neighbourhood in North Gyeongsang Province
A view of Mount Seorak
Daedongyeojido – this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region.
Jeju Island seashore
7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla
Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century
Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE
Goryeo in 1374
Gyeongbokgung Palace
Donggwoldo
The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889.
The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul
Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas today; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries
Moon and Kim shaking hands over the demarcation line on 27 April 2018
Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul.
Korean Buddhist architecture
Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu)
Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s
Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce.
Bulgogi and side dishes
Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Peninsular region in East Asia.

- Korea

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Unified Silla

Unified Silla with indication of territory; Tamna and Little Goguryeo are indicated in light green

Unified Silla or Later Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula.

Three Kingdoms of Korea

Samhan or the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Goguryeo (고구려, 高句麗), Baekje (백제, 百濟), and Silla (신라, 新羅).

7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla.
Goguryeo tomb mural.
Gilt-bronze Incense Burner of Baekje
Bangasayusang, 7th century
A Gaya soldier.
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.

Goguryeo was later known as Goryeo (고려, 高麗), from which the modern name Korea is derived.

Goryeo

Map of Goryeo in 1389
Goryeo's conquest of Silla and Baekje
Bronze statue of Taejo, c. undefined 951
Rafter finial in the shape of a dragon's head and wind chime, c. undefined 10th century
The Cheolli Jangseong (blue), a wall built by Goryeo in the aftermath of the Goryeo-Khitan War
The engraving of the original Tripitaka Koreana was begun in 1011 during the Khitan invasions to draw strength from the Buddha in defense of the kingdom.
The early 12th century was the height of the Korean celadon tradition and saw the full development of the indigenous "sanggam" technique of inlaid celadon.
General Yun Gwan (1040–1111) and his army.
Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda is a 10-story high marble pagoda made in 1348 that now sits in the National Museum of Korea.
King Gongmin (1330–1374) and Queen Noguk.
Yi Je-hyun (1287–1367), a civil bureaucrat and early Neo-Confucian scholar in Goryeo Dynasty.
Yeom Je-sin (1304–1382) was the main political opponent of the monk, Shin Don, who was in power.
Illustration of the Amitayurdhyana Sutra, c. undefined 13th century. A palace exemplifying the architecture of Goryeo is depicted.
General Gang Gam-chan was best known for his military victories during the Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War.
A Goryeo painting which depicts the Goryeo nobility.
Ksitigarbha painting, Goryeo Korea
Illustration of Maitreyavyakarana sutra (彌勒下生經變相圖)
Gwangyeongseopum Byeonsangdo, Goryeo buddhist painting.
Illustrated manuscript of the Lotus Sutra, c. undefined 1340
Kangnido reflects the geographic knowledge of China during the Mongol Empire when geographical information about Western countries became available via Islamic geographers.
Celadon incense burner. National Treasures of South Korea.
Ewer with Cover, first half of the 12th century. Stoneware with underglaze slip decoration and celadon glaze. Celadon ceramics of the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) are among the most celebrated works of Korean art. Their luminous green color is the result of iron in both the clay and the glaze oxidizing in a reduction kiln. Brooklyn Museum
A Korean stoneware cosmetic box with white and black inlay and a celadon glaze, from the Goryeo Dynasty, dated c. 1150–1250
Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Goryeo was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392.

Korea Strait

The Korea Strait is a sea passage in East Asia between Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan in the northwest Pacific Ocean.

Taejo of Joseon

Portrait of King Taejo

Taejo of Joseon (4 November 1335 – 27 June 1408), born Yi Seong-gye, was the founder and first ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.

Sejong the Great

Bronze statue of Sejong the Great, Deoksu palace
A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock.
"Sejong" in Hanja
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-Sil during the Chosŏn Dynasty under the reign of King Sejong
Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae
The tomb of Sejong the Great located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI).

Sejong the Great (세종대왕, ; 15 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.

Korean Empire

Territory of the Korean Empire 1903–1905. The disputed Gando region is shaded in lighter green.
Seal of the Korean Empire
Territory of the Korean Empire 1903–1905. The disputed Gando region is shaded in lighter green.
National seal
Coat of arms
Part of the old Russian legation building in Seoul. In 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince took refuge from the Gyeongbok Palace at the Russian legation in Seoul.
In 1900, Western attire became the official uniform for the Korean civil officials. Several years later, all Korean policemen were assigned to wear modernized uniforms.
Yi Yong-ik, Chief of the Bureau of Currency during the Korean Empire
A streetcar in Seoul, 1903
The headquarters office building of the Hanseong Electric Company
Japanese infantry marching through Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904
Yi Beom-jin, an official, later independence fighter against the Japanese. He supported secret emissaries sent by Gojong to The Hague in 1907.
Gwangmu Emperor sent three secret emissaries, Yi Tjoune, Yi Sang-seol and Yi Wi-jong, to The Hague, Netherlands in 1907.(Hague Secret Emissary Affair)
Hwangudan in c. 1906.
First Naval Ship of Korean Empire, KIS Yangmu
State funeral of Min Young-hwan who committed suicide for protest against the treaty

The Korean Empire was a Korean monarchical state proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty.

Movable type

System and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual alphanumeric characters or punctuation marks) usually on the medium of paper.

The King of Na gold seal, bestowed by Emperor Guangwu of Han to Wana (Yayoi Japan) in 57 AD.
The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, the oldest extant woodblock-printed book, AD 868 (British Museum)
Chinese characters are arranged in the shape of buddha on a page remain of Amitayurdhyana Sutra printed in 1103 (Northern Song Dynasty) by ceramic movable type. Found in Baixiang Pagoda, Wenzhou.
A revolving typecase for wooden type in China, from Wang Zhen's book published in 1313
Copperplate printed 5000-cash paper money in year 1215 (Jin Dynasty) with bronze movable type counterfeit markers
Korean movable type from 1377 used for the Jikji
Printed pages of the Jikji
The Printing Revolution in the 15th century: Within several decades around 270 European towns took up movable-type printing.
European output of movable-type printing from Gutenberg to 1800
Editing with movable metal – cca. 1920
A piece of cast metal type, Garamond style long s i ligature. See also: Sort.
A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick
Ceramic type from the collections of University of Reading.

The oldest extant book printed with movable metal type, Jikji, was printed in Korea in 1377 during the Goryeo dynasty.

Korea under Japanese rule

1945 National Geographic map of Korea, showing Japanese placenames and provincial boundaries.
Japanese marines landing from the Unyo at Yeongjong Island which is near Ganghwa
1945 National Geographic map of Korea, showing Japanese placenames and provincial boundaries.
Major battles and troop movements during the First Sino-Japanese War
Flag of the Japanese Resident General of Korea (1905–1910)
General power of attorney to Lee Wan-yong sealed and signed, by the last emperor, Sunjong (李坧) on 22 August 1910 (융희4년; 隆熙4年)
A soldier of the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies
Terauchi Masatake, the first Japanese Governor-General of Korea
Headquarters of the Oriental Development Company in Keijō
Chinese anti-Japanese poster published after reprisals by Koreans
Japan-Korea. Teamwork and Unity. Champions of the World. – The notion of racial and imperial unity of Korea and Japan gained widespread following among the literate minority of the middle and upper classes.
Kuniaki Koiso, Governor-General of Korea from 1942 to 1944, implemented a draft of Koreans for wartime labor.
A news article showing that Park Chung-hee had submitted an oath of allegiance to Japan in his own blood with his application form to serve in the Manchukuo Imperial Army, 31 March 1939
Crown Prince Lieutenant General Yi Un, Prince Captain Yi Geon and Captain Yi Wu in 1938
Lieutenant Park Chung-hee, Manchukuo, 1944
Korean volunteers in the Imperial Japanese Army, January 1943
A kidnapped girl sold into China by ethnic Korean brokers – 30 June 1933 The Dong-a Ilbo
Korean Comfort Women recorded by U.S. Marine Corps
Photo memorialising the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, 1919
Three Koreans shot for pulling up rails as a protest against seizure of land without payment by the Japanese
Provinces of Chosen Korea under Japanese rule
Groundbreaking for the Keijō–Fuzan railway
Production in Korea under Japanese rule
Industrialization of Korea under Japanese rule
Population of Korea under Japanese rule
Km of railway in Korea under Japanese rule
Telephone subscribers in Korea under Japanese rule
Keijō Imperial University, Keijō
The number of public regular schools (公立普通学校) and students
Enrollment rate of public regular schools (公立普通学校)

Between 1910 and 1945, Korea was ruled as a part of the Empire of Japan.

Hangul

I like Korean food but I don't like it when I fart.

The word "Hangul", written in the Korean alphabet
Enclosed Hangul characters in Unicode
Halfwidth Hangul jamo characters in Unicode
Computer Modern Unicode Oesol, a linear Hangul font with both uppercase and lowercase characters, using the Unicode Private Use Area. The text is a pangram that reads: "웬 초콜릿? 제가 원했던 건 뻥튀기 쬐끔과 의류예요." "얘야, 왜 또 불평?"
The U.S. city of Gardena in the Korean alphabet, with the written as Latin . (Compare this large with the smaller  in all-Latin Gardena below: The large  is fused (at bottom-right) with the Korean alphabet  that would normally be used to transcribe Gardena.)
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Sort order of Hangul consonants defined in the South Korean national standard KS X 1026-1
Sort order of Hangul vowels defined in the South Korean national standard KS X 1026-1

It is the official writing system throughout Korea, both North and South.