Korean War

KoreaKoreanKorea Warthe Korean Warwarwar in Koreahostilities in Korea6.25 warinvasion of South Koreain Korea
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the support of the United Nations, principally from the United States).wikipedia
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Battle of Pusan Perimeter

Pusan PerimeterBattle of the Pusan PerimeterUN Defensive
As a result, the ROKA and US troops retreated to a small area behind a defensive line known as the Pusan Perimeter.
It was one of the first major engagements of the Korean War.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
As a product of the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea into two sovereign states in 1948 with the border set at the 38th parallel.
China and the United States fought an undeclared high-casualty war in Korea (1950–53) that resulted in a stalemate.

Kim Il-sung

Kim Il Sunghis fatherKim
A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee.
Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a ceasefire was signed on 27 July 1953.

People's Volunteer Army

Chinese People's Volunteer ArmyChinese People's VolunteersChinese
UN forces invaded North Korea in October 1950 and moved rapidly towards the Yalu River—the border with China—but on 19 October 1950, Chinese forces of the People's Volunteer Army (PVA) crossed the Yalu and entered the war.
The (Chinese) People's Volunteer Army (PVA; ) was the armed expatriate volunteer forces deployed by the People's Republic of China during the Korean War.

Syngman Rhee

Rhee Syng-manRhee SyngmanRhee
A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee.
Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist and pro-American stance, and led South Korea through the Korean War from 1950 to 1953.

United Nations Security Council

UN Security CouncilSecurity CouncilU.N. Security Council
The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation of the United Nations Command and the dispatch of forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion.
In its early decades, the Security Council was largely paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis, Cyprus, and West New Guinea.

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee.
There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Vietnam War, the Soviet–Afghan War and the forces of Operation Condor.

United Nations Command

United NationsROK-US Combined Forces CommandUnited Nations forces
The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation of the United Nations Command and the dispatch of forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion.
The United Nations Command (UNC) is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces, established in 1950, supporting South Korea (the Republic of Korea or ROK) during and after the Korean War.

Korean conflict

Korean Crisisconflict between the two statesKorean dilemma
The conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military (KPA) forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced into South Korea on 25 June 1950.
The division of Korea by external powers occurred at the end of World War II, starting in 1945, and tensions erupted into the Korean War, which lasted from 1950 to 1953.

Korean Armistice Agreement

armisticeArmistice AgreementKorean Armistice
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed.
The Korean Armistice Agreement is the armistice which brought about a complete cessation of hostilities of the Korean War.

38th parallel north

38th parallel38°N38 degrees North
As a product of the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea into two sovereign states in 1948 with the border set at the 38th parallel.
The 38th parallel north formed the border between North and South Korea prior to the Korean War.

Republic of Korea Army

South Korean ArmyROK ArmyArmy
After the first two months of war, the ill-equipped and underprepared South Korean Army (ROKA) and the US forces rapidly dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat.
It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time.

Incheon

Incheon, South KoreaInchonJinsen
In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, and cut off many KPA troops in South Korea.
During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950.

Division of Korea

partition of Korea38th Paralleldivided
As a product of the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States divided Korea into two sovereign states in 1948 with the border set at the 38th parallel.
The subsequent Korean War, which lasted from 1950 to 1953, ended with a stalemate and has left the two Koreas separated by the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) up to the present day.

Korea

KoreanKorean PeninsulaSouth Korea
Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent.
Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950.

Korean Demilitarized Zone

Demilitarized ZoneDMZKorean DMZ
The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners.
The Korean Demilitarized Zone intersects but does not follow the 38th parallel north, which was the border before the Korean War.

Harry S. Truman

Harry TrumanTrumanHarry S Truman
In the US, the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he gained United Nations approval for the very large policy action known as the Korean War.

Yalu River

YaluAmnok RiverAmnok
UN forces invaded North Korea in October 1950 and moved rapidly towards the Yalu River—the border with China—but on 19 October 1950, Chinese forces of the People's Volunteer Army (PVA) crossed the Yalu and entered the war.
Together with the Tumen River to its east, and a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea and China and is notable as a site involved in military conflicts such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, World War II, and the Korean War.

Bodo League massacre

Bodo Leaguemass killing of tens of thousands of suspected communistsNational Guidance Program
It incurred the destruction of virtually all of Korea's major cities, thousands of massacres by both sides (including the mass killing of tens of thousands of suspected communists by the South Korean government), and the torture and starvation of prisoners of war by the North Korean command.
The Bodo League massacre was a massacre and war crime against communists and suspected sympathizers (many of whom were civilians who had no connection with communism or communists) that occurred in the summer of 1950 during the Korean War.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
The Korean War was among the most destructive conflicts of the modern era, with approximately 3 million war fatalities and a larger proportional civilian death toll than World War II or the Vietnam War.
The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 convinced many Washington policymakers that the war in Indochina was an example of communist expansionism directed by the Soviet Union.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the support of the United Nations, principally from the United States).
Two notable exceptions were a Security Council resolution on 7 July 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition to repel the North Korean invasion of South Korea, passed in the absence of the USSR, and the signing of the Korean Armistice Agreement in 27 July 1953.

Korean People's Army

North Korean ArmyNorth Korean People's ArmyMilitary of North Korea
The conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military (KPA) forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced into South Korea on 25 June 1950.
During the opening phases of the Korean War in 1950, the KPA quickly drove South Korean forces south and captured Seoul, only to lose 70,000 of their 100,000-strong army in the autumn after U.S. amphibious landings at the Battle of Incheon and a subsequent drive to the Yalu River.

People's Liberation Army

PLAChinese People's Liberation ArmyChinese Army
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had also occupied parts of China.
In November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.

Seoul

Seoul, South KoreaSeoul, KoreaHanseong
In these and subsequent battles, Seoul changed hands four times, and the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th Parallel.
During the Korean War, Seoul changed hands between the Russian/Chinese-backed North Korean forces and the American-backed South Korean forces several times, leaving the city heavily damaged after the war.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
By spring 1950, he believed that the strategic situation had changed: PLA forces under Mao Zedong had secured final victory in China, US forces had withdrawn from Korea, and the Soviets detonated their first nuclear bomb, breaking the US atomic monopoly.
In the following years he solidified his control through campaigns against landlords, suppression of "counter-revolutionaries", and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, which altogether caused the deaths of several-million Chinese.