Kraków

KrakowCracowKraków, PolandKrakow, PolandKrakauKrakovCracoviaKracowCracovianCracow (Kraków)
Kraków (, also,, ), also spelled Krakow in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.wikipedia
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Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
Kraków (, also,, ), also spelled Krakow in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Kraków Old Town

Old Townthe Old TownMain Square
Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland.

World Heritage Site

UNESCO World Heritage SiteWorld HeritageWorld Heritage List
Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In the same year, Krakow in Poland was also named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Archbishop of Kraków

Bishop of KrakówBishop of CracowBishop of Krakow
In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first ever Slavic pope, and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.
Due to Kraków's role as Poland's political, cultural and spiritual center, the bishops and archbishops of Kraków were often very influential in the city, country and abroad.

General Government

occupied PolandGeneralgouvernementPoland
After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau (Kraków District) became the capital of Germany's General Government.
Until 1945, the General Government comprised much of central, southern, and southeastern Poland within its prewar borders (and of modern-day Western Ukraine), including the major Polish cities of Warsaw, Kraków, Lwów (now Lviv, renamed Lemberg), Lublin (see Lublin Reservation), Tarnopol (see history of Tarnopol Ghetto), Stanisławów (now Ivano-Frankivsk, renamed Stanislau; see Stanisławów Ghetto), Drohobycz, and Sambor (see Drohobycz and Sambor Ghettos) and others.

Second Polish Republic

PolandPolishinterwar Poland
With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre.
The cultural hubs of interwar Poland – Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, Wilno and Lwów – became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education.

Jagiellonian University

University of KrakówKraków AcademyUniversity of Krakow
Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.

Main Square, Kraków

Main Market SquareMain SquareRynek Główny
The city has a population of about 770,000, with approximately 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny.
The main square (Rynek Główny ) of the Old Town of Kraków, Lesser Poland, is the principal urban space located at the center of the city.

Wawel Castle

Wawel Royal CastleRoyal CastleWawel
It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, and a basilica.
The Wawel Castle (Zamek Królewski na Wawelu) is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland.

Saints Peter and Paul Church, Kraków

Saints Peter and Paul ChurchChurch of Saints Peter and PaulChurch of Saints Peter and Paul in Kraków
Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny.
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland (Kościół ŚŚ Piotra i Pawła w Krakowie) is a Roman Catholic, Polish Baroque church located at ul.

Lesser Poland Voivodeship

Lesser PolandMałopolskieMałopolska
Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century.
The province is bounded on the north by the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Góry Świętokrzyskie), on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska (a broad range of hills stretching from Kraków to Częstochowa), and on the south by the Tatra,

Royal city in Poland

royal cityroyal townroyal city of Poland
The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków".
These cities were Gdańsk, Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, Lviv, Vilnius, Toruń, Lublin, Kamianets and Elbląg.

Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp

PłaszówPlaszowPłaszów concentration camp
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, and the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów.
Płaszów or Kraków-Płaszów (Konzentrationslager Plaszow) was a Nazi German labour and concentration camp built by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków (now part of Podgórze district), soon after the German invasion of Poland and the subsequent creation of the semi-colonial General Government district across occupied south-central Poland.

Wawel Cathedral

KrakówCathedral of KrakówKrakow Cathedral
Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, and a basilica.
Stanisława i Wacława na Wawelu), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (Katedra Wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church and Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Kraków, located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.

St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków

St. Mary's BasilicaMariacki ChurchSt. Mary's Church
Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, and a basilica.
Saint Mary's Basilica (Kościół Mariacki) is a Brick Gothic church adjacent to the Main Market Square in Kraków, Poland.

Kraków Ghetto

KrakówKrakow GhettoJewish ghetto in Kraków
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, and the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów.
Before the German-Soviet invasion of 1939, Kraków (Cracow) was an influential centre for the 60,000–80,000 Polish Jews who had lived there since the 13th century.

Kazimierz

historical districtJewish district KazimierzKazimierz Krasnowolski
In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland (Kazimierz in Polish) declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz (Casimiria in Latin).
Kazimierz (Casimiria; קוזמיר) is a historical district of Kraków and Kraków Old Town, Poland.

Vistulans

VistulanWiślanie
The first recorded mention of Prince Krakus (then written as Grakch) dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, when it was inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans.
In the 9th century, they created a tribal state, with probable major centers in Kraków, Wiślica, Sandomierz, and Stradów.

List of oldest universities in continuous operation

oldest universitiesoldest universities in continuous operationeducational
Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.

Krakus

King KrakusKrakKrakus I
The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus (Krak, Grakch), the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski.
Krakus, Krak or Grakch was a legendary Polish prince, king and founder of Kraków, the ruler of the tribe of Lechitians (Poles).

Skałka

Basilica of St Michael the Archangel and St Stanislaus (Skałką Church)Church of St Michael the Archangel and St Stanislaus BishopChurch of St. Michael the Archangel and St Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr and Pauline Fathers Monastery
The defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, and a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka.
Church of St Michael the Archangel and St Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr and Pauline Fathers Monastery, Skałka, which means "a small rock" in Polish, is a small outcrop in Kraków where the Bishop of Kraków saint Stanislaus of Szczepanów was slain by order of Polish king Bolesław II the Bold in 1079.

The Sigismund Bell

Sigismund BellZygmuntRoyal Sigismund Bell
In 1520, the most famous church bell in Poland, named Zygmunt after Sigismund I of Poland, was cast by Hans Behem.
The Royal Sigismund Bell (Królewski Dzwon Zygmunt or Dzwon Zygmunta) is the largest of the five bells hanging in the Sigismund Tower of the Wawel Cathedral in the Polish city of Kraków.

Church of St. Adalbert, Kraków

Church of St. WojciechChurch of St. AdalbertSt. Adalbert
Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, and a basilica.
Wojciecha), located on the intersection of the Main Market Square and Grodzka Street in Old Town, Kraków, is one of the oldest stone churches in Poland.

Wawel Dragon

Smok WawelskiDragonDragon of Wawel
A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski.
Wawel Hill is in Kraków, which was then the capital of Poland.

Lechites

LechiticLechitic tribesLech
The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus (Krak, Grakch), the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians.
His son, Bolesław the Brave founded the bishoprics at Wrocław, Kołobrzeg, and Cracow, and an archbishopric at Gniezno.