Anthony Pico, former chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay
Engraving by Arthur Carl Victor Schott, Sorony & Co., 1857
Kumeyaay were displaced to construct the El Capitan Reservoir
Barona Resort Hotel
Valle de Guadalupe, B.C.
Kumeyaay items
Frame of an ‘ewaa
Kumeyaay coiled basket, woven by Celestine Lachapa, 19th century, San Diego Museum of Us
Kumeyaay willow storage basket at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California cultural museum, Mexicali

Tribe of Indigenous peoples of the Americas who live at the northern border of Baja California in Mexico and the southern border of California in the United States.

- Kumeyaay

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Kumeyaay language

Anthony Pico, former chairman of the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay

Kumeyaay (Kumiai), also known as Central Diegueño, Kamia, and Campo, is the Native American language spoken by the Kumeyaay people of southern San Diego and Imperial counties in California.

Ensenada, Baja California

City in Ensenada Municipality, Baja California, situated on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

The historic Mexican Army Barracks, built in 1886, is today a history museum.
Hotel Riviera del Pacífico in 1930.
Purísimo Corazón de María Church was built at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Port of Ensenada, built in 1994, is one the busiest ports on the Pacific Coast of North America.
Ensenada's Pacific Coast.
Panoramic view of Ensenada.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe is the seat of the Catholic Diocese of Ensenada.
Riviera del Pacífico Cultural Center.
The Baja Ha-Ha boat race in the Bahía de Todos Santos.
View of Malecón de Ensenada from Port of Ensenada on the Pacific Ocean.
Bar on the Ensenada coast.
Shops on Calle Primera.
View of Ensenada at night.
The Port of Ensenada is one of the busiest deepwater ports on the West Coast of North America.
The nearby Valle de Guadalupe is a major wine tourism destination.
The campus of the Autonomous University of Baja California, Ensenada, located on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.
Garden in downtown Ensenada.
The historic Hotel Riviera del Pacífico is today a cultural center.
Baja 500 in 2008
The Port of Ensenada is a popular stop for cruise ships on the Pacific.
The historic Mexican Army barracks.
López Zamora reservoir.

Yuman tribal groups such as the Kiliwa, Paipai and Kumeyaay still exist.

Laguna Mountains

The Laguna Mountains are a mountain range of the Peninsular Ranges System in eastern San Diego County, southern California.

Laguna Mountain's chaparral habitat in foreground, Cuyamaca Mountains in background.
Laguna Mountains (lower right/east), and other Peninsular Ranges in Southern California.
Cleveland National Forest observation deck in the Laguna Mountains.
Inspiration Point view, east towards Anza Borrego Desert State Park (right), Vallecito Mountains (left), and Santa Rosa Mountains (left background).

The mountains have long been inhabited by the indigenous Kumeyaay people.


City in Tecate Municipality, Baja California.

Catholic procession in Tecate.
Parque Miguel Hidalgo.
Lázaro Cárdenas memorial.
View of Cerro La Panocha.
Our Lady of Guadalupe Church, part of the Catholic Archdiocese of Tijuana.
The Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery produces Tecate (beer).
Band of CETIS high school.
Downtown Tecate.

Kuuchamaa Mountain, also known as Tecate Peak in the United States, is a sacred mountain for the Kumeyaay people (known in Mexico as Kumiai) people, and the Kumeyaay language is still spoken in the mountains near Tecate at Juntas de Nejí.

Baja California

State in Mexico.

Sierra de San Pedro Mártir, with Picacho del Diablo in the center
Encelia californica growing on the Ensenada Municipality coast, typical of the California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion
Isla Partida, part of the San Lorenzo Marine Archipelago National Park
Vineyard in the Valle de Guadalupe
Snowfall at Constitution 1857 National Park
Municipalities of Baja California in 2020
Marina del Pilar Ávila Olmeda, the governor of Baja California since 2021
Los Pioneros monument in Mexicali, dedicated to the pioneers that settled the region
Filming of Master and Commander at Baja Film Studios. Located in Rosarito, Baja Film Studios has become one of the premier production facilities with horizon tanks.

At that time, two main native groups are thought to have been present on the peninsula – the Cochimí in the south, and several groups belonging to the Yuman language family in the north, including the Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cocopa, and Quechan.

Mission San Diego de Alcalá

The first Franciscan mission in The Californias, a province of New Spain.

The church façade of Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Plaque of the Mission San Diego de Alcala
The cattle brand used at Mission San Diego.
Natives utilize a primitive plow to prepare a field for planting near Mission San Diego de Alcalá.
A painting of Mission San Diego de Alcalá as it appeared in 1848 depicts the original campanario ("bell tower"), before it was reduced to rubble. The painting also shows the enclosed front portico.
The "Alemany Plat" prepared by the U.S. Land Surveyor's Office to define the property restored to the Catholic Church by the Public Land Commission, later confirmed by presidential proclamation on May 23, 1862.<ref>Engelhardt 1920, p. 346</ref>
President Abraham Lincoln's signature as it appeared on the United States Patent that restored the Mission property to the Catholic Church in 1862. This is one of the few documents that the President signed as "A. Lincoln" instead of his customary "Abraham Lincoln." <ref name="engelhardt348">Engelhardt 1920, p. 348</ref>
Mission San Diego de Alcalá as it stood circa 1900. Note the missing Campanario, and the exposed church, which fell into disrepair.
Aerial view of the Mission, 2011

Located in present-day San Diego, California, it was founded on July 16, 1769, by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay people.

Escondido, California

The 1846 Battle of San Pasqual was a battle between American and Californio forces during the U.S. Conquest of California.
Aerial view of a citrus orchard in the San Pascual Valley in Escondido, California
Boating activities at Dixon Lake
Aerial view of Palomar Medical Center in Escondido, California
Historic Downtown Escondido
A portion of the disc golf course at Kit Carson Park
Picnic Areas at Dixon Lake
Aerial view of Escondido City Hall and Grape Day Park behind
Historic railroad station
An aerial view of Interstate 15 approaching the Route 78 interchange in Escondido, California.
Escondido city buses entering and departing the Escondido Transit Center.
The Sprinter light rail train preparing to depart the platform at the Escondido Transit Center.

Escondido (Spanish for "Hidden"; Kumeyaay: Eskondiid) is a city in San Diego County's North County region, 30 mi northeast of downtown San Diego, 15 miles from the ocean, and 40 miles from the Mexican border.

San Diego County, California

County in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States.

Many of the cities seen from the sky as part of the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area.
Cleveland National Forest
Beach at Border State Park; San Diego is on the right while Tijuana is on the left.
Border fence between Tijuana (right) and San Diego's border patrol offices (left)
San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station
Horton Plaza, before its demolition in 2020
San Diego County Administration Center
USS Decatur (DDG-73)
North County communities. Coastal cities are in dark blue, unincorporated coastal communities are in light blue. Inland cities are in dark yellow, unincorporated inland communities are in light yellow. Parts of northern San Diego are sometimes considered part of North County, as are much of the white areas north of the city.
East County communities in red. In dark red are the cities and towns of Santee and El Cajon which mark the western edge of East County. Unincorporated communities are in light red, including Lakeside and Alpine.
South Bay communities of San Diego County. The cities and towns of National City, Chula Vista, and Imperial Beach are in dark orange. The unincorporated community of Bonita is in light orange. San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, neighborhoods of the city of San Diego, are in pink.

The area which is now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay (also called Diegueno and Ipai/Tipai), Payómkawichum (Luiseño), Kuupangaxwichem (Cupeño), ʔívil̃uqaletem (Cahuilla), and the Acjachemen (Juaneño) Indians and their local predecessors.

Presidio of San Diego

Historic fort in San Diego, California.

1820 map, Presidio of San Diego
Ruins of the San Diego Presidio (National Historic Landmarks collection).
The Serra Museum in Presidio Park marks the original site of the Presidio and Mission

Prior to occupation by the Spanish, the site of the Presidio was home to the Kumeyaay people (called the Diegueños by the Spaniards).

Poway, California

City in San Diego County, California, United States.

Lake Poway as seen from a helicopter in 2012
The view west of Potato Chip Rock, on Mount Woodson Trail, including Poway

The original name of the valley ("Pawiiy" or "Pauwai") is derived from the Kumeyaay language of the Kumeyaay people who roamed the area for several hundred years before the Spaniards colonised the region.