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International auxiliary language

auxiliary languageinternational languageauxiliary languages
He grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war and believed that this could happen with the help of a new international auxiliary language as a tool that can help to gather people together through a neutral, fair, and equitable communication.
Esperanto was developed from about 1873–1887 (a first version was ready in 1878), and finally published in 1887, by L. L. Zamenhof, as a primarily schematic language; the word stems are borrowed from Romance, West Germanic and Slavic languages.


Lingwe uniwersalaearly version of the languagefirst version
By 1878, his project Lingwe uniwersala was almost finished.
Proto-Esperanto (Pra-Esperanto) is the modern term for any of the stages in the evolution of L. L. Zamenhof's language project, prior to the publication of Unua Libro in 1887.

History of the Jews in Poland

Polish-JewishJewishPolish Jews
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, לײזער לֵוִי זאַמענהאָף; 15 December 1859 – 14 April 1917), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the initiator of the international language Esperanto, the most successful constructed language in the world.
Other Polish Jews who gained international recognition are Moses Schorr, Ludwik Zamenhof (the creator of Esperanto), Georges Charpak, Samuel Eilenberg, Emanuel Ringelblum, and Artur Rubinstein, just to name a few from the long list.


In 1885, Zamenhof graduated from a university and began his practice as a doctor in Veisiejai and after 1886 as an ophthalmologist in Płock and Vienna.
The Esperanto language was created in Veisiejai where L. L. Zamenhof started his practice as an ophthalmologist in 1885.


EsperantistEsperantistsEsperanto language
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, לײזער לֵוִי זאַמענהאָף; 15 December 1859 – 14 April 1917), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the initiator of the international language Esperanto, the most successful constructed language in the world.
L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist, created Esperanto in the late 19th century and published the first book detailing it, Unua Libro, in 1887 under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto, Esperanto translating as "one who hopes".


Zamenhof was born on 15 December (3 December OS) 1859, the son of Markus Zamenhof (27 January 1837 - 29 November 1907) and Rozalia Zamenhof (1839 - 1 September 1892), in the multi-ethnic city of Białystok, now in Poland, at that time in Grodno Governorate in the Russian Empire as a result of the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit.
The Ludwik Zamenhof Centre (Centrum im. Ludwika Zamenhofa w Białymstoku) offers the visitors a permanent exhibition, 'Bialystok of Young Ludwik Zamenhof', and various temporary exhibitions, concerts, film projections, and theatre performances.

Adolf Holzhaus

The complete original Russian text of this manuscript was only published in 1982, with parallel Esperanto translation by Adolf Holzhaus, in L. Zamenhof, provo de gramatiko de novjuda lingvo [An attempt at a grammar of neo-Jewish language], Helsinki, pp. 9–36.
Between 1959 and 1985, he compiled biographies of the lives of Esperanto creator L. L. Zamenhof and his family, Esperanto pioneer Wilhelm Heinrich Trompeter, and others.

1462 Zamenhof

The minor planet 1462 Zamenhof is named in his honor.
The asteroid was named after L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto.

Unua Libro

Dr. Esperanto's International Language: Introduction & Complete Grammarfirst Esperanto publication
Unua Libro, 1887 (English: First Book)
Dr. Esperanto's International Language (Международный язык, International Language), commonly referred to as Unua Libro (First Book), is an 1887 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author first introduced and described the constructed language Esperanto.

Zamenhof Day

His birthday, 15 December, is celebrated annually as Zamenhof Day by users of Esperanto.
Zamenhof Day (Zamenhofa Tago), also called Esperanto Book Day, is celebrated on 15 December, the birthday of Esperanto creator L. L. Zamenhof.

Esperanto symbols

Esperanto flagEsperanto symbolgreen star
On 15 December 2009, Esperanto's green-starred flag flew on the Google search web page, in a commemorative Google Doodle to mark Zamenhof's 150th birthday.
In a letter to The British Esperantist in 1911, L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, wrote: "It seems to me, that my attention was drawn to the color green by Mr. Richard H. Geoghegan and from that time I began to publish all of my works with green covers . . . Looking at one of my pamphlets that I had entirely by chance printed with a green cover, he pointed out that this was the color of his homeland, Ireland; at that time it came to me, that we could certainly look at that color as a symbol of HOPE. About the five-pointed star, it seems to me, that at first Mr. de Beaufront had it imprinted on his grammar [of Esperanto]. I liked that and I adopted it as a symbol. Afterward by association of ideas, the star appeared with a green color."

Hovevei Zion

Hibbat ZionLovers of ZionChovevei Zion
In 1882 a wave of pogroms within the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, motivated Zamenhof to take part in the early Zionist movement, the Hibbat Zion.
The Warsaw chapter was founded by L. L. Zamenhof, who was working on the first grammar of Yiddish ever written, published under the pseudonym "Dr. X" only in 1909, in Lebn un visnshaft, in the article "Vegn a yidisher gramatik un reform in der yidisher shprakh".

Fundamento de Esperanto

Fundamenta GramatikoFundamento
Fundamento de Esperanto, 1905 (Foundation of Esperanto)
Fundamento de Esperanto (English: Foundation of Esperanto) is a 1905 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author explains the basic grammar rules and vocabulary that constitute the basis of the constructed language Esperanto.

Dua Libro

Aldono al la Dua Libro
Dua Libro, 1888 (Second Book)
Dua Libro de l' Lingvo Internacia (Second Book of the International Language), usually referred to simply as Dua Libro, is an 1888 book by L. L. Zamenhof.

Jewish Heritage Trail in Białystok

Jewish Heritage Trail
The house of the Zamenhof family, dedicated to Ludwik Zamenhof, and the Białystok Esperanto Centre, are sites of the Jewish Heritage Trail in Białystok, which was opened in June 2008 by volunteers at The University of Białystok Foundation.
Sienkiewicza 26A; now State Theatre Academy) – Gymnasium of Jozef Zeligman, Jozef Lebenhaft and Jakub Dereczynski – Gilarino Miniature Theatre – Mansions of Isaac Zabludowski – Linas Chailim Charity Association – House of the Zamenhof Family – Monument to Ludwik Zamenhof – Yitzhak Malmed Plaque – Druskin Gymnasium – The Heroes of the Ghetto Uprising Monument – Cytron Synagogue (now Art Gallery of the Slendzinskis) – Warynskiego Street – The Modern Cinema – House of the Jakub Szapiro Family – Nowik Palace in Białystok – Tarbut (today Maria Grzegorzewska Craft School) – Jewish Craft School (now The Faculty of Physics at The University of Białystok) – The Barbican Mission (today's Syrena cinema) – Białystok-Chanajki Quarter – Piaski Quarter – Rabbinical Cemetery (today's Central Park in Białystok) – Piaskower Synagogue – The Monument of the Great Synagogue – The City Hall – The Jewish Cemetery (Wschodnia street) – and the Cholera cemetery in Białystok.

La Esperantisto

La Esperantisto, 1889–1895 (The Esperantist)
L. L. Zamenhof started it as a way to provide reading material for the then-nascent Esperanto community.

Declaration of Boulogne

declarationDeclaration about the essence of Esperantism
Declaration of Boulogne, 1905
The Declaration was written by L. L. Zamenhof and ratified in 1905 by the attendees of the first World Esperanto Congress, held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.

History of Esperanto

Esperantoevolution of Esperanto
History of Esperanto
L. L. Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the 1870s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libro, in 1887.

La Espero

"La Espero" ("The Hope")
"La Espero" ("The Hope") is a poem written by Polish-Jewish doctor L. L. Zamenhof (1859–1917), the initiator of the Esperanto language.

Constructed language

constructedconlangconstructed languages
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, לײזער לֵוִי זאַמענהאָף; 15 December 1859 – 14 April 1917), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the initiator of the international language Esperanto, the most successful constructed language in the world.
However, disagreements between Schleyer and some prominent users of the language led to schism, and by the mid-1890s it fell into obscurity, making way for Esperanto, proposed in 1887 by Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, and its descendants.

The Life of Zamenhof

The Life of Zamenhof
The Life of Zamenhof is a biography of L. L. Zamenhof, the founder of Esperanto, written in Esperanto by Edmond Privat.

Zamenhof-Esperanto object

named after
Zamenhof-Esperanto object
A Zamenhof-Esperanto object (Zamenhof/Esperanto-Objekto, ZEO) is a monument or a place linked to L. L. Zamenhof, the constructed language Esperanto he created and first published in 1887, or the community of Esperanto speakers which has been using the language since.


Zamenhof is honored as a deity by the Japanese religion Oomoto, which encourages the use of Esperanto among its followers.
Oomoto members also tend to recognize notable religious figures from other religions, or even notable non-religious figures, as kami – for example, the creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof is revered as a god.

James O'Grady

Sir James O'GradyO'Grady, James
In 1910, Zamenhof was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, by four British members of parliament (including James O'Grady, Philip Snowden) and Professor Stanley Lane Poole.
In 1910, O'Grady and three other MPs, along with Professor Stanley Poole, formally nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize the Polish physician L. L. Zamenhof, inventor of Esperanto.

Jewish Cemetery, Warsaw

Jewish cemeteryJewish Cemetery in WarsawWarsaw Jewish cemetery
Zamenhof died in Warsaw on 14 April 1917, possibly of heart failure, and was buried at the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery.
Ludwik Zamenhof, doctor and inventor of Esperanto.