LP record

LPLP albumvinylvinyl LPLPsalbumlong playlong-playing recordLP records30cmLP
The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm, a 12- or 10-inch (30- or 25-cm) diameter, and use of the "microgroove" groove specification.wikipedia
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Album

studio albumlive albumtribute album
Apart from a few relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album; this format evolved after 1948 into single vinyl LP records played at 33 1⁄3 rpm.

Shellac

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At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive (and therefore noisy) shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, and played at approximately 78 revolutions per minute (rpm), limiting the playing time of a 12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side.
Phonograph and 78 rpm gramophone records were made of it until they were replaced by vinyl long-playing records from the 1950s onwards.

Electrical transcription

transcription disctranscriptionselectrical transcriptions
16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm discs playing about 15 minutes per side were used for most of these "electrical transcriptions" beginning about 1930.
Physically, electrical transcriptions look much like long-playing records that were popular for decades.

Columbia Records

ColumbiaCBSCBS Records
Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 18, 1948, in two formats: 10 in in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm singles, and 12 in in diameter.
Despite Wallerstein's stormy tenure, in June 1948, Columbia introduced the Long Playing "microgroove" LP record format (sometimes written "Lp" in early advertisements), which rotated at 33⅓ revolutions per minute, to be the standard for the gramophone record for half a century.

Peter Carl Goldmark

Peter GoldmarkPeter C. GoldmarkDr. Peter Goldmark
CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia's team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side.
Peter Carl Goldmark (Goldmark Péter Károly) (December 2, 1906 – December 7, 1977) was a Hungarian-American engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing microgroove 33-1/3 rpm phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations.

Phonograph record

vinyl7LP
The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm, a 12- or 10-inch (30- or 25-cm) diameter, and use of the "microgroove" groove specification. Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 18, 1948, in two formats: 10 in in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm singles, and 12 in in diameter.
The large cover (and inner sleeves) are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, especially when it comes to the long play vinyl LP.

RCA Records

RCARCA VictorRCA Victor Records
RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-playing record for home use in September 1931.
These used a shallower and more closely spaced implementation of the large "standard groove" found on contemporary 78 rpm records, rather than the "microgroove" used for post-World War II 33⅓ rpm "LP" (long play) records.

Album era

album rock erarock album formatdeath of the album
The popularity of the LP ushered in the "Album Era" of English-language popular music, beginning in the 1960s, as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums.
It was primarily driven by three successive music recording formats: the 331⁄3 rpm LP record, the audiocassette, and the music Compact disc.

AM broadcasting

AMAM radioAM station
Neither of these was necessarily a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting.
AM radio offered the highest sound quality available in a home audio device prior to the introduction of the high-fidelity, long-playing record in the late 1940s.

Howard H. Scott

Although Goldmark was the chief scientist who selected the team, he delegated most of the experimental work to William S. Bachman, whom Goldmark had lured from General Electric, and Howard H. Scott.
He is credited with helping to develop the LP as part of a team at CBS Laboratories headed by Peter Goldmark.

Cassette tape

cassetteCScompact cassette
Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the late 1970s with the advent of Compact Cassettes, and later compact discs, the LP survives as a format to the present day. Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mid-1960s.
Between the early 1970s and continuing through the 1990s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc (CD).

Extended play

EPEPsextended plays
To compete with the LP, boxed albums of 45s were issued, along with EP (Extended Play) 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side.
An extended play record, often referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is usually unqualified as an album or LP.

Leopold Stokowski

StokowskiLeopold Anthony Stokowski
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski, was the first 12-inch recording issued.
It was recorded "live" on 78 rpm records and remained the only recording of this work in the catalogue until the advent of the LP Record.

Single (music)

singlesingles7" single
Despite these efforts, the 45 succeeded only in replacing the 78 as the format for singles.
In the music industry, a single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album.

Phonograph

turntablesgramophoneturntable
The new product was a 12- or 10-inch (30 or 25 cm) fine-grooved disc made of PVC ("vinyl") and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm.
Booms in record sales returned after the Second World War, as industry standards changed from 78s to vinyl, long-playing records (commonly called record albums), which could contain an entire symphony, and 45s which usually contained one hit song popularized on the radio – thus the term "single" record – plus another song on the back or "flip" side.

Waldorf Astoria New York

Waldorf-Astoria HotelWaldorf-AstoriaWaldorf Astoria
Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 18, 1948, in two formats: 10 in in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm singles, and 12 in in diameter.
On June 21, 1948, a press conference at the hotel introduced the LP record.

Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies

Christgau's Record GuideRock Albums of the Seventies
"The rise of the LP as a form—as an artistic entity, as they used to say—has complicated how we perceive and remember what was once the most evanescent of the arts", Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies (1981).
They chartered a boathouse and brought with them a stereo system and numerous LP records.

Cast recording

original cast recordingcast albumoriginal cast album
As a result, the 12-inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. These were used mainly for the original cast albums of Broadway musicals, such as Kiss Me, Kate and My Fair Lady, or to fit an entire play, such as the 1950 production of Don Juan in Hell, onto two LPs.
The first American original cast recording as we know it was an early experimental LP of program transcriptions of selections from The Band Wagon, a 1931 revue starring Fred and Adele Astaire.

Mini-LP

mini-albummini albummini-albums
Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as Mini-LPs in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative.
A mini-LP or mini-album is a short vinyl record album or LP, usually retailing at a lower price than an album that would be considered full-length.

Format war

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By the mid-1950s, the 10-inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued.

8-track tape

8-track8-track cartridge8 Track
Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mid-1960s.
The four tracks were divided into two "programs", typically corresponding to the two sides of an LP record, with each program comprising two tracks read simultaneously for stereo (two channel) sound playback.

Initiation (Todd Rundgren album)

InitiationInitiation'' (Todd Rundgren album)
The list of long-playing vinyl records includes the 90-minute 1976 LP 90 Minutes with Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops, made by Radio Shack; Genesis' Duke, with each side exceeding 27 minutes; Bob Dylan's 1976 album Desire, with side two lasting almost thirty minutes; Todd Rundgren's 1975 album Initiation, totaling 67 min 32 s over two sides; and André Previn's Previn Plays Gershwin, with the London Symphony Orchestra, whose sides each exceeded 30 minutes.
The album is one of the longest single LPs of all time, totaling almost 68 minutes of playing time.

Man and Superman

Don Juan in HellMan and Superman with Don Juan in HellMan and'' ''Superman
These were used mainly for the original cast albums of Broadway musicals, such as Kiss Me, Kate and My Fair Lady, or to fit an entire play, such as the 1950 production of Don Juan in Hell, onto two LPs.
This version was also released as a spoken word album on LP, but is yet to appear on CD.

Unusual types of gramophone records

picture disclocked groove12" picture disc
Besides the standard black vinyl, specialty records are also pressed on different colors of PVC/A or picture discs with a card picture sandwiched between two clear sides.

Audio Fidelity Records

Audio FidelityAFE RecordsAudio Fidelity 24kt gold disk
The modern system ultimately released by Audio Fidelity Records in November 1957 uses two modulation angles, equal and opposite 45 degrees from vertical (and so perpendicular to each other.) It can also be thought of as using traditional horizontal modulation for the sum of left and right channels (mono), making it essentially compatible with simple mono recordings, and vertical-plane modulation for the difference of the two channels.
Sidney Frey (1920–68), founder and president of Audio Fidelity, had Westrex, owner of one of the two rival stereo disk-cutting systems, cut a stereo LP disk for release before any of the major record labels, several of which had the Westrex equipment but had not yet produced a stereo disk.