LaTeX

LaTeX2HTMLHlineLaTeX2ethe document preparation system
LaTeX ( or ) is a document preparation system.wikipedia
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Formatted text

rich textstyled texttext formatting
When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer and Apple Pages.
In LaTeX, the text would be marked up like this:

TeX

TeX Users GroupTUGPlain TeX
A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. The characters T, E, X in the name come from the Greek capital letters tau, epsilon, and chi, as the name of TeX derives from the τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuth promotes a pronunciation of (that is, with a voiceless velar fricative as in Modern Greek, similar to the ch in loch).
It is also used for many other typesetting tasks, especially in the form of LaTeX, ConTeXt, and other macro packages.

Markup language

markupmarkup languagestext encoding
The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references.
Early markup systems typically included typesetting instructions, as troff, TeX and LaTeX do, while Scribe and most modern markup systems name components, and later process those names to apply formatting or other processing, as in the case of XML.

Desktop publishing

DTPDesktop publishing softwaredigital typography
The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing of tables and figures, chapter and section headings, the inclusion of graphics, page layout, indexing and bibliographies.
Desktop publishing often requires the use of a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create documents for either large-scale publishing or small-scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution — although a non-WYSIWYG system such as LaTeX could also be used for the creation of highly-structured and technically-demanding documents as well.

Leslie Lamport

LamportLamport, LeslieLeslie B. Lamport
LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International.
Lamport is best known for his seminal work in distributed systems, and as the initial developer of the document preparation system LaTeX and the author of its first manual.

LaTeX Project Public License

LPPLLaTeX Project Public License (LPPL)
LaTeX is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL).
The LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL) is a software license originally written for the LaTeX system.

Separation of content and presentation

separation of presentation and contentpresentationcontent and presentation
LaTeX attempts to follow the design philosophy of separating presentation from content, so that authors can focus on the content of what they are writing without attending simultaneously to its visual appearance.
Common applications of this principle are seen in Web design (HTML vs. CSS) and document typesetting (LaTeX's document body vs. its preamble).

SRI International

Stanford Research InstituteSRIStanford Research Institute (SRI)
LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International.
In computing and software, SRI developed a multimedia electronic mail system, a theory of non-interference in computer security, a multilevel secure (MLS) relational database system called Seaview, LaTeX, Open Agent Architecture (OAA), a network intrusion detection system, the Maude system, a declarative software language, and PacketHop, a peer-to-peer wireless technology to create scalable ad hoc networks.

Free software

freefree-softwarefreely
LaTeX is free software and is distributed under the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL). LyX is a free, WYSIWYM visual document processor that uses LaTeX for a back-end.
Other influential examples include the Emacs text editor; the GIMP raster drawing and image editor; the X Window System graphical-display system; the LibreOffice office suite; and the TeX and LaTeX typesetting systems.

Citation

citedcitationscite
The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references.

XeTeX

XeLaTeXHistoryxdvipdfmx
Alternatively, the TeX, LaTeX and XeTeX logos can also be rendered via pure CSS and XHTML for use in graphical web browsers — by following the specifications of the internal macro.
XeTeX works well with both LaTeX and ConTeXt macro packages.

Pages (word processor)

PagesApple Pages.PAGES
When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer and Apple Pages.

Donald Knuth

Donald E. KnuthKnuthDon Knuth
The characters T, E, X in the name come from the Greek capital letters tau, epsilon, and chi, as the name of TeX derives from the τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuth promotes a pronunciation of (that is, with a voiceless velar fricative as in Modern Greek, similar to the ch in loch).
Around the same time, LaTeX, the now-widely-adopted macro package based on TeX, was first developed by Leslie Lamport, who later published its first user manual in 1986.

AMS-LaTeX

AMS-TeXAMSTeX
There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt.
AMS-LaTeX is a collection of LaTeX document classes and packages developed for the American Mathematical Society (AMS).

Texinfo

GNU InfoGNU MakeinfoGNU Texinfo
There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt.
Similar to the LaTeX syntax, all the normal features of a book, such as chapters, sections, cross references, tables and indices are available for use in documents.

Typesetting

typesettercompositortypeset
LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language.
LuaTeX and LuaLaTeX are variants of TeX and of LaTeX scriptable in Lua.

PDF

Portable Document FormatPDF format.pdf
A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution. In the latter role, for example, it is sometimes used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF.
Apple's macOS's integrated PDF viewer, Preview, does also enable annotations as does the open source software Skim, with the latter supporting interaction with LaTeX, SyncTeX, and PDFSync and integration with BibDesk reference management software.

LyX

The LyX Project
LyX is a free, WYSIWYM visual document processor that uses LaTeX for a back-end.
LyX (styled as ; pronounced ) is an open source document processor based on the LaTeX typesetting system.

DocBook

DocBook XML
In the latter role, for example, it is sometimes used as part of a pipeline for translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF.

ConTeXt

PPCHTeX
There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt.
ConTeXt may be compared and contrasted with LaTeX, but the primary thrust of the two are rather distinct.

Device independent file format

DVIdvipdfm.dvi
A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution.
TeX markup may be at least partially reverse-engineered from DVI files, although this process is unlikely to produce high-level constructs identical to those present in the original markup, especially if the original markup used high-level TeX extensions (e.g. LaTeX).

MiKTeX

A TeX distribution such as TeX Live or MikTeX is used to produce an output file (such as PDF or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution.
MiKTeX is a free distribution of the TeX/LaTeX typesetting system for Microsoft Windows (and for Mac and certain Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora).

Text editor

text editorstext editingeditor
In order to create a document in LaTeX, you first write a file, say, using your preferred text editor.

TeX4ht

TeX4ht is a configurable converter capable of translating TeX and LaTeX documents to HTML and certain XML formats.

GNU TeXmacs

TeXmacsTeXmacs format
TeXmacs is a free, WYSIWYG editor with similar functionalities as LaTeX, but with a different typesetting engine.
TeXmacs is not a front-end to LaTeX but TeXmacs documents can be converted to either TeX or LaTeX.