Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
La Araucana, 1st part, editio princeps, Madrid, 1569.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

This term is now considered pejorative by some people, contrary for others, the importance of the term Araucanian lies in the universality of the epic work La Araucana, written by Alonso de Ercilla and the feat of that people, in the long and interminable war against the Spanish Empire.

- Mapuche

He occupied several positions in the household of Prince Philip (later King Philip II of Spain), before requesting and receiving appointment to a military expedition to Chile to subdue the Araucanians of Chile, he joined the adventurers.

- La Araucana
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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Caupolican

Caupolicán

Caupolican

Caupolicán (meaning ‘polished flint’ (queupu) or ‘blue quartz stone’ (Kallfulikan) in Mapudungun) was a toqui or war leader of the Mapuche people, who led the resistance of his people against the Spanish Conquistadors who invaded the territory of today's Chile during the sixteenth century.

The name Caupolican became a symbol of Native American resistance, and his life and acts were collected by Alonso de Ercilla - one of the military captains in the army of Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza y Manrique - in his epic poem La Araucana and by Ruben Dario in his poem Caupolican.

Posthumous portrait by Federico de Madrazo

Pedro de Valdivia

Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile.

Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile.

Posthumous portrait by Federico de Madrazo
Alonso de Ovalle's 1646 engraving of Pedro de Valdivia.
Pedro Lira's 1789 painting of the founding of Santiago by Pedro de Valdivia at Huelén Hill.
Alonso de Ovalle's 1646 engraving of Valdivia, Villagra and Alderete.
House of Pedro de Valdivia in Santiago de Chile, along with the Vera Cruz capel, as pictured by Recaredo Santos Tornero in Chile Ilustrado (1872).
Statue of Pedro de Valdivia (Santiago, Chile)
Last moments of Pedro de Valdivia of Nicolás Guzmán Bustamante

He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Mapuche.

His career and death are treated in the epic poem La Araucana by Alonso de Ercilla.

Alonso de Ercilla

Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

Statue of Alonso de Ercilla in Blanco Encalada, Santiago de Chile
Alonso de Ercilla in the Retratos de Españoles Ilustres ("Portraits of Illustrious Spaniards"), 1791.

While in Chile (1556–63) he fought against the Araucanians (Mapuche), and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems.

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.

Conquest of Chile

Period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.
Pedro de Valdivia
The Juan Bautista Pastene expedition to southern Chile in 1544.

However the largest indigenous population were the Mapuches living south of the Inca borders in the area spanning from the Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago.

The epic poem La Araucana (1576) by Alonso de Ercilla describes the Spanish viewpoint.