Lacrimal gland

lacrimal glandslacrimaltear glandslachrymal glandlachrymal glandslachrymalLachrymal Apparatuslacrimal ductlacrimatorytear gland
In human physiology, the lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.wikipedia
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Exocrine gland

exocrineexocrine glandssecretory gland
In human physiology, the lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
Examples of exocrine glands include sweat, salivary, mammary, ceruminous, lacrimal, sebaceous, and mucous.

Dacryoadenitis

Inflammation of the lacrimal glands is called dacryoadenitis.
Dacryoadenitis is inflammation of the lacrimal glands (the tear-producing glands).

Tears

lacrimationteartear film
In human physiology, the lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
The lacrimal glands secrete lacrimal fluid, which flows through the main excretory ducts into the space between the eyeball and lids.

Lacrimal punctum

punctapuncta lacrimalialacrimal puncta
Tears secreted collect in the fornix conjunctiva of the upper lid, and pass over the eye surface to the lacrimal puncta, small holes found at the inner corner of the eyelids.
Together, they function to collect tears produced by the lacrimal glands.

Ophthalmic nerve

ophthalmicophthalmic divisionophthalmic branch
The lacrimal nerve, derived from the ophthalmic nerve, supplies the sensory component of the lacrimal gland.
The lacrimal nerve passes through the orbit superiorly to innervate the lacrimal gland.

Ophthalmic artery

ophthalmicartery to the eyeLateral muscular branch
The lacrimal artery, derived from the ophthalmic artery supplies the lacrimal gland.
The next branch of the OA is the lacrimal artery, one of the largest, arises just as the OA enters the orbit and runs along the superior edge of the lateral rectus muscle to supply the lacrimal gland, eyelids and conjunctiva.

Fossa for lacrimal gland

lacrimal fossa
They are situated in the upper lateral region of each orbit, in the lacrimal fossa of the orbit formed by the frontal bone.
It is smooth and concave, and presents, laterally, underneath the zygomatic process, a shallow depression for the lacrimal gland.

Orbit (anatomy)

orbitorbitseye socket
They are situated in the upper lateral region of each orbit, in the lacrimal fossa of the orbit formed by the frontal bone.
Enlargement of the lacrimal gland, located superotemporally within the orbit, produces protrusion of the eye inferiorly and medially (away from the location of the lacrimal gland).

Greater petrosal nerve

greater superficial petrosal nervegreater superficial petrosalgreater petrosal
The greater petrosal nerve, derived from the facial nerve, supplies the parasympathetic autonomic component of the lacrimal gland. Then, from the geniculate ganglion, the preganglionic fibres run in the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) which carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (which contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) which then traverses through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve (also known as the large superficial petrosal nerve) is a nerve in the skull that branches from the facial nerve; it forms part of a chain of nerves that innervate the lacrimal gland.

Lacrimal artery

lacrimal
The lacrimal artery, derived from the ophthalmic artery supplies the lacrimal gland.
It accompanies the lacrimal nerve along the upper border of the lateral rectus and supplies the lacrimal gland.

Facial nerve

facialcranial nerve VIIVII
The greater petrosal nerve, derived from the facial nerve, supplies the parasympathetic autonomic component of the lacrimal gland. From the pons nucleus preganglionic parasympathetic fibres run in the nervus intermedius (small sensory root of facial nerve) to the geniculate ganglion but they do not synapse there. Then, from the geniculate ganglion, the preganglionic fibres run in the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) which carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (which contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) which then traverses through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
Greater petrosal nerve – It arises at the geniculate ganglion and provides parasympathetic innervation to several glands, including the nasal glands, the palatine glands, the lacrimal gland, and the pharyngeal gland. It also provides parasympathetic innervation to the sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus and nasal cavity. This nerve also includes taste fibers for palate via lesser palatine nerve and greater palatine nerve.

Acinus

aciniacinarAcinar cell
The lacrimal gland is a compound tubuloacinar gland, it is made up of many lobules separated by connective tissue, each lobule contains many acini.
the lacrimal glands

Geniculate ganglion

geniculateangledganglion geniculi
From the pons nucleus preganglionic parasympathetic fibres run in the nervus intermedius (small sensory root of facial nerve) to the geniculate ganglion but they do not synapse there. Then, from the geniculate ganglion, the preganglionic fibres run in the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) which carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (which contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) which then traverses through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
It receives fibers from the motor, sensory, and parasympathetic components of the facial nerve and sends fibers that will innervate the lacrimal glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands, tongue, palate, pharynx, external auditory meatus, stapedius, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, stylohyoid muscle, and muscles of facial expression.

Lacrimal nerve

lacrimallacrimal branches
The lacrimal nerve, derived from the ophthalmic nerve, supplies the sensory component of the lacrimal gland.
It enters the lacrimal gland and gives off several filaments, which supply sensory innervation to the gland and the conjunctiva.

Parasympathetic nervous system

parasympatheticparasympathetic nerveparasympathetic nerves
The greater petrosal nerve, derived from the facial nerve, supplies the parasympathetic autonomic component of the lacrimal gland.
The parasympathetic aspect of the facial nerve controls secretion of the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands, the lacrimal gland, and the glands associated with the nasal cavity.

Intermediate nerve

nervus intermedius
From the pons nucleus preganglionic parasympathetic fibres run in the nervus intermedius (small sensory root of facial nerve) to the geniculate ganglion but they do not synapse there.
These postganglionic neurons send axons that provide parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland via a communicating branch from zygomatic nerve to lacrimal nerve of CN V.

Preorbital gland

facial glandspreorbitalpreorbital scent gland
Preorbital gland
The preorbital gland is a paired exocrine gland found in many species of hoofed animals, which is homologous to the lacrimal gland found in humans.

Pterygopalatine ganglion

sphenopalatine ganglionpterygopalatinepterygopalatine ganglia
Then, from the geniculate ganglion, the preganglionic fibres run in the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) which carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (which contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) which then traverses through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland, paranasal sinuses, glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and pharynx, the gingiva, and the mucous membrane and glands of the hard palate.

Lacrimal apparatus

lacrimal systemlacrimallachrymal passages
Lacrimal apparatus
The lacrimal gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the human eye;

Foramen lacerum

Then, from the geniculate ganglion, the preganglionic fibres run in the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) which carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (which contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) which then traverses through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
In the foramen lacerum the greater petrosal nerve joins with the deep petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal. The deep petrosal nerve carries sympathetic and the greater petrosal nerve carries parasympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system to blood vessels, mucous membranes, salivary glands, and lacrimal glands.

Sjögren syndrome

sjogren's syndromeanti-La antibodiesSjögren's syndrome
Sjögren's syndrome
The rose bengal test uses a stain that measures state and function of the lacrimal glands.

Superior cervical ganglion

superior cervical gangliasuperior
The sympathetic postganglionic fibers originate from the superior cervical ganglion.
The internal carotid plexus carries the postganglionic axons of the SCG to the eye, lacrimal gland, mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and pharynx, and numerous blood-vessels in the head.

Nerve of pterygoid canal

nerve of the pterygoid canalvidian nervethe corresponding nerve
Then, from the geniculate ganglion, the preganglionic fibres run in the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) which carries the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers through the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (which contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal (vidian nerve) which then traverses through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion.
The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the greater petrosal nerve, upon synapsing in the pterygopalatine ganglion, will distribute to the nose, palate, and lacrimal gland through various nerves leaving the pterygopalatine fossa.

Zygomatic nerve

zygomatic branch
In the pterygopalatine fossa itself, the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers branch off with the zygomatic nerve and then branch off again, joining with the lacrimal branch of the ophthalmic division of CN V, which supplies sensory innervation to the lacrimal gland along with the eyelid and conjunctiva.
These fibers will eventually provide innervation to the lacrimal gland.