Lacritin

lacrimal functional unitLACRT
Lacritin is a 12.3 kDa glycoprotein encoded in humans by the LACRT gene.wikipedia
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Dry eye syndrome

keratoconjunctivitis siccadry eyedry eyes
Dry eye is the most common disease of the LFU.
Only a small fraction of the estimated 1543 proteins in tears are differentially deficient or upregulated in dry eye, one of which is lacritin.

Syndecan 1

CD138syndecan-1SDC1
Lacritin cell targeting is dependent on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1).
An exception is the prosecretory mitogen lacritin that binds syndecan-1 only after heparanase modification.

Heparanase

Heparanase 2HPSEHse1
Binding utilizes an enzyme-regulated 'off-on' switch in which active epithelial heparanase (HPSE) cleaves off heparan sulfate to expose a binding site in the N-terminal region of syndecan-1's core protein.
In ocular surface physiology this activity functions as an off/on switch for the prosecretory mitogen lacritin.

Tears

lacrimationteartear film
Lacritin is a secreted protein found in tears and saliva.

Glycoprotein

glycoproteinsmembrane glycoproteinprotein
Lacritin is a 12.3 kDa glycoprotein encoded in humans by the LACRT gene.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Lacritin is a 12.3 kDa glycoprotein encoded in humans by the LACRT gene.

Saliva

salivationspittlespit
Lacritin is a secreted protein found in tears and saliva.

Cell growth

proliferationcell proliferationgrowth
Lacritin also promotes tear secretion, the proliferation and survival of epithelial cells, and corneal wound healing Lacritin is thus a multifunctional prosecretory mitogen with cell survival activity.

Epithelium

epithelialepithelial cellsepithelial cell
Lacritin also promotes tear secretion, the proliferation and survival of epithelial cells, and corneal wound healing Lacritin is thus a multifunctional prosecretory mitogen with cell survival activity. Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and by epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea.

Mitogen

mitogenicmitogensmitogenesis
Lacritin also promotes tear secretion, the proliferation and survival of epithelial cells, and corneal wound healing Lacritin is thus a multifunctional prosecretory mitogen with cell survival activity.

Lacrimal gland

lacrimal glandslacrimaltear glands
Most lacritin is produced by the lacrimal gland, including the accessory lacrimal gland of Wolfring.

Meibomian gland

meibomian glandstarsal glandsmeibomian gland dysfunction
Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and by epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea.

Conjunctiva

conjunctivalbulbar conjunctivaconjunctival sac
Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and by epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea.

Cornea

cornealcorneal diseasecorneal diseases
Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and by epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea.

Heparan sulfate

heparan sulfate proteoglycanheparan sulphateheparin sulfate
Lacritin cell targeting is dependent on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1).

Proteoglycan

proteoglycansglyoproteinsproteochondroitin sulfate
Lacritin cell targeting is dependent on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1).

G protein-coupled receptor

G-protein coupled receptorG protein-coupled receptorsGPCR
A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) then appears to be ligated.

NFAT

Nuclear factor of activated T-cellsNF-ATnuclear factor of activated T cells
Targeted cells signal to NFAT and mTOR if conditions are suitable for proliferation, or to AKT and FOXO3 under conditions of stress.

MTOR

mammalian target of rapamycinmechanistic target of rapamycinTOR
Targeted cells signal to NFAT and mTOR if conditions are suitable for proliferation, or to AKT and FOXO3 under conditions of stress.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Lacritin consists of 119 amino acids after cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide and displays several predicted alpha helices, mostly in the C-terminal half.

Signal peptide

signal sequencetransit peptidetargeting sequence
Lacritin consists of 119 amino acids after cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide and displays several predicted alpha helices, mostly in the C-terminal half.

Alpha helix

alpha helicesα-helicesalpha-helices
Lacritin consists of 119 amino acids after cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide and displays several predicted alpha helices, mostly in the C-terminal half.

Amphiphile

amphipathicamphiphilicamphiphiles
The most C-terminal alpha helix is amphipathic with hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues on opposite faces.

Hydrophobe

hydrophobichydrophobicityhydrophobic interaction
The most C-terminal alpha helix is amphipathic with hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues on opposite faces.

Hydrophile

hydrophilichydrophilicityHydrophilia
The most C-terminal alpha helix is amphipathic with hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues on opposite faces.