The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

- Lahore

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Ravi River

Transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

Pir Panjal Range
Source of Budhil River, in Himachal Pradesh a major tributary of the Ravi River
Boats floating beside the Ravi River in Lahore
Bridge of boats on the Ravi taken by an unknown photographer in 1880
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947 showing the doabas formed by Ravi River with other rivers of the Indus River system.
Chamera Lake and dam
The Indus River system comprising the rivers, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus- a shared legacy between India and Pakistan

As the Ravi flows past Lahore in Pakistan (26 km below Amritsar in India) it is called "The river of Lahore" since that city is on its eastern bank.


City in Punjab, Pakistan.

Iqbal Manzil the residence of Allama Iqbal
Iqbal Chowk
Allama Iqbal, the philosopher-poet credited inspiring the Pakistan Movement, was born in Sialkot in 1877.
Sialkot Gate
A boulevard in Sialkot
Sialkot International Airport

Sialkot continued to be a major political centre, until it was eclipsed by Lahore around the turn of the first millennium.

Walled City of Lahore

The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
The Walled City's Hazuri Bagh is a quadrangle at the centre of an ensemble of monuments including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The Tomb of Jahangir was built just outside the Walled City, in an area known as Shahdara Bagh.
The Shah Jahan period Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das was built within the Walled City at the birthplace and childhood home of Guru Ram Das, the 4th Guru of Sikhism.
The Walled City around 1890.
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Gali Surjan Singh typifies the Walled City's dense construction along narrow passageways.
The Alamgiri Gate serves as the main entrance to the Lahore Fort, and faces the Hazuri Bagh quadrangle.
Lahore's Badshahi Mosque dates from the late 1600s, and was the last of the grand Mughal imperial mosques to be built.
Wazir Khan Mosque is renowned for its intricate and extensive embellishment.
The Sunehri Mosque is named for its gilded domes.
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh was built next to the iconic Badshahi Mosque.
The Gurdwara Dera Sahib was built where the 5th Guru of Sikhism is believed to have died in 1606.
The Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh is the most notable surviving example of Sikh architecture in Lahore.
The Shahi Hammam is known for its extensive collection of Mughal frescoes.
Outlets on the Fort Road Food Street specialize in Lahori cuisine.
Façades along the first phase of the Shahi Guzargah project near Delhi Gate have been rehabilitated, while power lines were placed underground.

The Walled City of Lahore (Punjabi &, "Inner City"), also known as Old City, forms the historic core of Lahore, Pakistan.

Punjab, Pakistan

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

The province's capital is Lahore—a cultural, historical, economic, and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan, where the country's cinema industry and much of its fashion industry are based.

Shalimar Gardens, Lahore

The gardens provide a popular recreation spot for Lahore's residents
Inside Shalimar Gardens
Shalimar Gardens in 1895
The middle level terrace of the garden, known as the Faiz Bakhsh terrace, was the Emperor's garden.
Nigar Khana
East wall corner of the second level terrace
Minaret on the west wall corner of the second level terrace
A Mughal style structure inside the gardens

The Shalimar Gardens are a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, Pakistan.

Muhammad of Ghor

The Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.

Mausoleum of Muhammad of Ghor, built at his gravesite by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan in 1994-1995, in Sohawa Tehsil, Pakistan.
Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. AH 599-602 / 1171-1206 CE. Ghazni mint.
Indian coinage (Pagoda) of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, on the model of Gahadavala dynasty coinage. Obverse: Lakshmi seated facing. Reverse: legend in Devanagari: śrima ha/[mi]ra mahama/da sama "Lord Emir Muhammad (ibn) Sam".
Bengal coinage of Bakhtiyar Khalji (1204-1206 CE). Struck in the name of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, dated Samvat 1262 (1204 CE). Obverse: Horseman with Nagari legend around: samvat 1262 bhadrapada "August, year 1262". Reverse: Nagari legend: srima ha/ mira mahama /da saamah "Lord Emir Mohammed [ibn] Sam".
Muhammad Ghori's tomb within his mausoleum near Jhelum
[[:File:Hindu_Shahis_Spalapatideva_type,_Kabul_mint.jpg|Bull-and-horseman]] billon coin of Muhammad of Ghor, with his name inscribed in Sanskrit above the bull Nandi. Minted in Delhi or Bada'un, on the model of previous Chauhan and Pala coinage. Obverse: Stylized recumbent bull with Nagari legend around: sri mahamad sam "Lord Mohammed [ibn] Sam". Reverse: Stylized horseman with Nagari legend around: sri hamirah "Lord Emir".

He also annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186, the last haven of his Persianised rivals.

Pakistan Movement

Political movement in the first half of the 20th century that aimed for the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of British India.

Minar e Pakistan, where the bill of Lahore Resolution was passed.
Robert Clive meeting with Emperor Shah Alam II, 1765.
After the Seringapatam battle, Emperor Tipu Sultan's children surrendered to Lord Cornwallis in 1799.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan became an inspiration for the Pakistan Movement.
The Muslim League Governing Council at the Lahore session. The woman wearing the black cloak is Muhatarma Amjadi Banu Begum, the wife of Mohammad Ali Jauhar, a prominent Muslim League leader. Begum was a leading representative of the UP's Muslim women during the years of the Pakistan Movement.
Aga Khan III in 1936.
Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk,(left) who organised the Simla deputation, with Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Centre), Sir Syed's son Justice Syed Mahmood (extreme right). Syed Mahmood was the first Muslim to serve as a High Court judge in the British Raj.
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman seconding the Resolution with Jinnah and Liaquat presiding the session.
First Session of All-India Jamhur Muslim League
Sindh is the birthplace and burial place of Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan.
Bacha Khan with Gandhi in 1946.
Jinnah meeting with Baluchistan's leaders.
Map of United Bengal
The Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore, Pakistan glances at night.
Robert Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey.
British forces storming of the Pettah Gate of Bangalore.
General Sir David Baird discovering the body of Tipu Sultan, 1799.
British Army's last push for Mysore, the 1700s.

At the 27th annual Muslim League session in 1940 at Lahore's Iqbal park where about 100,000 people gathered to hear Jinnah speak:


Muslim Turkic dynasty of mamluk origin, ruling at its greatest extent, large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE under Mahmud.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar. Schlumberger noted that the turban, the small mouth and the strongly slanted eyes were characteristically Turkic.
Fight between Mahmud of Ghazni and Abu 'Ali Simjuri.
Ghaznavid fortress of Lashkari Bazar in Lashkargah, ancient Bost, southern Afghanistan. It was founded by Mahmud of Ghazni in 998-1030 CE.
Mahmud of Ghazni at his court (center) receives a robe from Caliph Al-Qadir; painting by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani.
Mahmud of Ghazni receiving Indian elephants as tribute (Majmu al-Tawarikh, Hafiz i-Abru, Herat, 1425).
The Kara-Khanid ruler "Ilig Khan" on horse, submitting to Mahmud of Ghazni, who is riding an elephant.
Vessel with bull's head spout, Ghaznavid dynasty, late 11th to early 12th century, bronze. Linden-Museum – Stuttgart, Germany
Marble wall border, Ghazni, Afghanistan, 12th century CE. Linden-Museum – Stuttgart, Germany
Coin of Mahmud minted in Ghazni.
Coinage of Mas'ud I of Ghazni (1030–1041), derived from Hindu Shahi designs, with the name of Mas'ud around the head of the horserider.

After the fall of Ghazni in 1163, the Ghaznavids established themselves in Lahore, their regional capital for Indian territories since its conquest by Mahmud of Ghazni, which became the new capital of the Late Ghaznavids.


City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

The 10th century Hudud al-'Alam notes that Multan's rulers were also in control of Lahore, though that city was then lost to the Hindu Shahi.

Hindu Shahis

The Hindu Shahis (also known as Hindūshāhs, Odi Shahis, Uḍi Śāhis or Brahman Shahis, 822–1026 CE) were a dynasty that held sway over the Kabul Valley, Gandhara and western Punjab during the early medieval period in the Indian subcontinent.

the coin design
copied and improved upon
Horseman on a coin of Spalapati, i.e. the "War-lord". The headgear has been interpreted as a turban.
Arabic Hahaj for Hindu Shahis
Non-debased Spalapati series (Kabul mint) — weighs between 3.1 and 3.5 g with a uniform content of 70% silver. Obverse: Bull with trisula mark on the hump, with Nagari legend: Nagari1035 shrii.jpgi1035 spa.jpgNagari1035 l.svgNagari1035 p.svgNagari1035 ti.jpgNagari1035 de.jpgNagari1035 v.svg Śri Spalapatideva "Lord Commander-in-Chief". Reverse: Horseman with Nagari1035 a.svg a in Nagari to left and symbol to right.
Rather debased Samantadeva series (Kabul mint) — weighs between 2.9 and 3.9 g with a variable content of 60 to 70% silver. Obverse: Bull with trisula mark on the hump, with Nagari legend: Nagari1035 shrii.jpgNagari1035 s.svgNagari1035 m.svgNagari1035 t.svgNagari1035 de.jpgNagari1035 v.svg Śri Samantadeva. Reverse: Horseman with Nagari1035 bhii.jpg bhī in Nagari to left and symbol to right.
Strongly debased Bhimadeva series — found near-exclusively in Afghanistan and weighs between 3.1 and 3.2 g. Obverse: Recumbent bull with legend Nagari1035 shrii.jpgNagari1035 bhii.jpgNagari1035 m.svgNagari1035 de.jpgNagari1035 v.svg Śri Bhīmadeva. Reverse: Horseman holding banner; Nagari1035 n.svg na in Nagari to left; trace of symbol to right.
The army of Jayapala, surprised by a snowstorm, meets disaster in the Hindu-Kush. 20th century illustration.
Mahmud of Ghazni riding an elephant following his conquest in India.
Ghaznavid bilingual coinage of Mas'ud I of Ghazni (r. 1030-1040 CE), derived from Hindu Shahi designs, with the name of Mas'ud around the head of the horserider.
Ekhamukhaling: linga with face of Shiva. 9th century Afghanistan. Art of the Hindu Shahi kingdom.

Around the same time, Jayapala was challenged by Bharat, a Rajah of Lahore who wished to wrest control of Nandana, Jailam and Takeshar.