The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

- Lahore

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Alauddin Khalji

Alaud-Dīn Khaljī, also called Alauddin Khilji or Alauddin Ghilji ((r.

A 17th century portrait of Alauddin Khalji
Gold coinage of ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad (AH 695-715 / AD 1296–1316). Dar al-Islam mint. Dated AH 709 (AD 1309–10).
The army of Alaudeen on March to Deccan, a 20th-century artist's impression
Extent of the Delhi Sultanate at the time of Jalaluddin Khalji's ascension (1290)
Sultan Alau'd Din put to Flight; Women of Ranthambhor commit Jauhar, a Rajput painting from 1825
Khalji territory at its maximum extent (dark green) and territory of the Khalji tributaries (light green)
Bilingual coin
Tomb of Alauddin Khalji, Qutb complex, Delhi.
The Hauz-i-Khas
Ruined wall of Siri
Alai Darwaza
Courts to the east of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque, in Qutb complex added by Khalji in 1300 CE.
Alauddin's Madrasa, Qutb complex, Mehrauli, which also has his tomb to the south.
The unfinished Alai Minar
Copper half Gani
Copper half Gani
Billion Gani
Silver Tanka
Silver Tanka Dar al-Islam Mint
Silver Tanka Qila Deogir Mint

The region beyond Lahore suffered from Mongol raids and Khokhar rebellions.


The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Akbar and his forces occupied Lahore and then seized Multan in the Punjab.

Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)

Founded in Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave-general of the Ghurid Empire from Central Asia.

Territory of the Delhi Mamluk Dynasty.
Coin of Ghiyath al-Din 'Iwad, Governor of Bengal, AH 614-616 AD 1217-1220. Struck in the name of Shams al-Din Iltutmish, Sultan of Dehli.
Tomb of Iltutmish (r. 1211–1236) in the Qutub Minar complex.
The Quwwat-ul-Islam ("Might of Islam") mosque, at the Qutb complex in Delhi, started in 1193 CE by Qutb-ud-din-Aibak to mark his victory over the Rajputs
Intricate stone carvings on the cloister columns at Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, Qutb complex, Delhi. These are recuperated Hindu pillars sporting Hindu iconography.
The Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer was started in 1192 and completed in 1199 by Qutb al-Din Aibak.
thumb|Decoration inside the Marble Mehrab at Sultan Ghari

Making Lahore his capital, he consolidated his control over North India through an administrative hold over Delhi.


Traditional townhouse, mansion, manor house, in the Indian subcontinent, usually one with historical and architectural significance, and located in a town or city.

Patwon Ji Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India
Multistorey structures and balconies during Mauryan Empire, 3rd century BCE
Townhouse Haveli with Jharokha windows
Relief depicting early form of Jharokha windows, 1st century CE
A haveli in Phalodi, Rajputana
Badal Mahal at Shahpura Haveli, Shahpura, Rajputana
The Omar Hayat Mahal in Chiniot, Pakistan
The Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh is a Sikh-era haveli in Lahore.
Janjua Haveli, of Haji Abdul Haq Janjua in Malowal, Gujrat, Pakistan

The old cities of Agra, Lucknow, Jaisalmer and Delhi in India and Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Hyderabad in Pakistan have many fine examples of Rajasthani-style havelis.


The fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Potrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, giving birth to Prince Salim in Fatehpur Sikri.
Emperor Jahangir weighing his son Prince Khurram (the future Shah Jahan) on a weighing scale by artist Manohar (1615).
Jahangir with falcon on horseback
The Tomb of Jahangir in Shahdara, Lahore
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Jahangir's making a Dua
Jahangir's Jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi
Jahangir and Anarkali

He went from Kabul to Kashmir but decided to return to Lahore because of a severe cold.


The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Babur Family Tree
17th-century portrait of Babur
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
Babur crossing the Indus River
Babur and his heir Humayun
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012

He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne, but the ambassador was detained at Lahore, Punjab, and released months later.

Bahadur Shah I

The eighth Mughal emperor in India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.

Portrait of Bahadur Shah I, c. 1670
Prince Mu'azzam in his youth
Emperor Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Bahadur Shah I and his Consort
On his march to Amber, Shah visited the tomb of Salim Chishti.
Kam Bakhsh established his rule in Bijapur.
Bahadur Shah on a Sikh expedition
Moti Masjid, Shah's burial place
alt=Both sides of a silver coin|Silver rupee from Azimabad, 1708
alt=Both sides of an irregularly-round copper coin|Copper paisa from Surat
alt=Both sides of a silver coin|Silver rupee from Shahjahanabad, 1708

From 1696 to 1707, he was governor of Akbarabad (later known as Agra), Kabul and Lahore.


Fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 280,187, and the capital of Bukhara Region.

Kok-Gumbaz mosque
Suzani textiles from Bukhara are famous worldwide. This one was made before 1850
Coin belonging to the Greek government of Balkh found in Bukhara
Amir Alim Khan, the last emir of Bukhara, circa 1911
Minister of Interior, Bukhara, circa 1905–1915
Bukhara under siege by Red Army troops and burning, September 1, 1920
Kalyan or Kalon Minor (Great Minaret)
Church of Archangel Michael in Bukhara
Ismail Samani mausoleum, آرامگاه اسماعیل سامانی
Simurgh on the portal of Nadir Divan-Beghi madrasah (part of Lab-i Hauz complex)
Nasruddin Hodja
An alley close to Lab-i Hauz کوچه ای در نزدیکی لب حوض
Wall of the Bukhara Fortress, the Ark
Char Minar
The Magoki-Attari mosque (south façade)
مدرسه میر عرب، مناره کلان و مدرسه خان
Bukhara train station
Uzbekistan, Bukhara, Spices and silk festival

🇵🇰 Lahore, Pakistan (1995)

Durrani Empire

Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia.

The Afghan Empire at its height under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
City of Kandahar, its principal bazaar and citadel, as seen from the Nakkara Khauna
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition decisively defeat the Maratha Confederacy, during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the Mughal Empire to Shah Alam II.
The Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar was one of the royal residences of the Durrani kings.
The main street in the bazaar at Kabul, 1842 James Atkinson watercolour painting.

Ahmad Shah invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time, and then a fourth, consolidating control over the Kashmir and Punjab regions, with Lahore being governed by Afghans.

Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī

An 1881 photo showing Shah Hussain Hotak's fortress in Old Kandahar, where Abdali and his brother Zulfikar were imprisoned. It was destroyed in 1738 by the Afsharid forces of Persia.
Coronation of Ahmad Shah Durr-i-Durrān by Abdali chiefs at Kandahar in 1747
Invasions of Abdali with considerable political shifts within Punjab and Hindustan regions
The Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar was one of the royal residences of Ahmad Shah.
Gold coin of Ahmad Shah Durrani, minted in Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi), dated 1760/1
Durrani sitting on a brown horse during the 1761 Battle of Panipat in Northern India.
A Qur'an dedicated to Ahmad Shah Durrani, signed Fayzullah, Afghanistan, dated 21 Rajab AH 1167 i.e. 14 May 1754 AD
Durrani chieftains, 1847.
The tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani in Kandahar City, which also serves as the Congregational Mosque and contains the sacred cloak that the Islamic Prophet Muhammad wore.
Son and Successor to Ahmad Shah, Timur Shah Durrani

He first crossed the Indus River in 1748, the year after his ascension – his forces sacked and absorbed Lahore.