Lake Tanganyika

TanganyikaLakes TanganyikalakeLake TanganikaLake Tanganyika, Africa
Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.wikipedia
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Lake Baikal

BaikalBaikal LakeLake Baykal
It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia.
Like Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal was formed as an ancient rift valley, having the typical long, crescent shape with a surface area of 31722 km2.

Burundi

Republic of BurundiBurundianUrundi
The lake is shared between four countries – Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania (46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake.
It is bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and southeast, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Lake Tanganyika lies along its southwestern border.

African Great Lakes

Great LakesGreat Lakes regionGreat Lakes region of Africa
Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. The cichlids of the African Great Lakes, including Tanganyika, represent the most diverse extent of adaptive radiation in vertebrates.
They include Lake Victoria, the third-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, Lake Tanganyika, the world's second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth, and Lake Malawi, the world's eighth-largest fresh water lake by area.

Tanzania

TanzanianUnited Republic of TanzaniaRepublic of Tanzania
The lake is shared between four countries – Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania (46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake.
These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas.

Ruzizi River

Rusizi RiverRuziziRusizi
The major river flowing into the lake is the Ruzizi River, formed about 10,000 years ago, which enters the north of the lake from Lake Kivu.
The Ruzizi (also sometimes spelled Rusizi) is a river, 117 km long, that flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa, descending from about 1500 m to about 770 m above sea level over its length.

List of lakes by depth

deepest lakedeepestdeepest lakes in the world
It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia.

Malagarasi River

Malagarasi-Muyovozi WetlandsMalagarasiMalagarasi-Muyovozi floodplain
The Malagarasi River, which is Tanzania's second largest river, enters the east side of Lake Tanganyika.
It is the second-longest river in Tanzania behind the Rufiji—Great Ruaha, and has the largest watershed of any river flowing into Lake Tanganyika.

Lukuga River

Lukuga
The one major outflow is the Lukuga River, which empties into the Congo River drainage.
The Lukuga River is a tributary of the Lualaba River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) that drains Lake Tanganyika.

Lake Kivu

KivuLac Kivukivu lake
The major river flowing into the lake is the Ruzizi River, formed about 10,000 years ago, which enters the north of the lake from Lake Kivu.
Lake Kivu empties into the Ruzizi River, which flows southwards into Lake Tanganyika.

Congo River

CongoCongo River BasinRiver Congo
The one major outflow is the Lukuga River, which empties into the Congo River drainage. It drains into the Congo River system and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean.
The sources of the Congo are in the highlands and mountains of the East African Rift, as well as Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru, which feed the Lualaba River, which then becomes the Congo below Boyoma Falls.

Lake Malawi

Lake NyasaMalawiLake Nyassa
The lake may also have at times had different inflows and outflows; inward flows from a higher Lake Rukwa, access to Lake Malawi and an exit route to the Nile have all been proposed to have existed at some point in the lake's history.
The lake is about 350 km southeast of Lake Tanganyika, another of the great lakes of the East African Rift.

Albertine Rift

Western Rift ValleyAlbertine Rift MountainsAlbertine
Lake Tanganyika is situated within the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift, and is confined by the mountainous walls of the valley.
It extends from the northern end of Lake Albert to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika.

List of lakes by volume

largest10th or 12th largest6th largest lake by volume
It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia.

Cichlid

Cichlidaecichlidscichlid fish
The lake holds at least 250 species of cichlid fish and undescribed species remain.
Cichlids are particularly well known for having evolved rapidly into a large number of closely related but morphologically diverse species within large lakes, particularly Tanganyika, Victoria, Malawi, and Edward.

Pseudocrenilabrinae

CichlidsFishpseudocrenilabrine
All Tanganyika cichlids are in the subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae.
To this subfamily belong the cichlids from the African Great Lakes, such as the utaka and mbuna in Lake Malawi, and various species from Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika.

Kavala Island

Kavala Island (Île Kavala) is an island in Lake Tanganyika.

Zambia

ZambianRepublic of ZambiaNorthern Rhodesia
The lake is shared between four countries – Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania (46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake.
Lake Tanganyika is the other major hydrographic feature that belongs to the Congo basin.

Ectodini

Of the 10 tribes in this subfamily, half are largely or entirely restricted to the lake (Cyprichromini, Ectodini, Lamprologini, Limnochromini and Tropheini) and another three have species in the lake (Haplochromini, Tilapiini and Tylochromini).
Ectodini is a tribe of cichlids that are endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa.

Gustave (crocodile)

GustaveGustave the crocodile
Lake Tanganyika and associated wetlands are home to Nile crocodiles (including famous giant Gustave), Zambian hinged terrapins, serrated hinged terrapins, and pan hinged terrapins (last species not in the lake itself, but in adjacent lagoons).
He is notorious for being a man-eater, and is rumored to have killed as many as 300 people from the banks of the Ruzizi River and the northern shores of Lake Tanganyika.

Tylochromis

Tylochromini
Of the 10 tribes in this subfamily, half are largely or entirely restricted to the lake (Cyprichromini, Ectodini, Lamprologini, Limnochromini and Tropheini) and another three have species in the lake (Haplochromini, Tilapiini and Tylochromini).
Many of the species are endemic to the Congo River Basin, but species also are found in Lake Tanganyika, Cameroon, Nigeria, and West Africa from Ghana to Gambia.

Greenwoodochromis

Greenwoodochromini
Others have proposed splitting the Tanganyika cichlids into as many as 12–16 tribes (in addition to previous mentioned, Bathybatini, Benthochromini, Boulengerochromini, Cyphotilapiini, Eretmodini, Greenwoodochromini, Perissodini and Trematocarini).
Greenwoodochromis is a small genus of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika in Africa.

Adaptive radiation

radiationradiateddiversified
The cichlids of the African Great Lakes, including Tanganyika, represent the most diverse extent of adaptive radiation in vertebrates.
The haplochromine cichlid fishes in the Great Lakes of the East African Rift (particularly in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, and Lake Victoria) form the most speciose modern example of adaptive radiation.

Tropheini

tropheines
Of the 10 tribes in this subfamily, half are largely or entirely restricted to the lake (Cyprichromini, Ectodini, Lamprologini, Limnochromini and Tropheini) and another three have species in the lake (Haplochromini, Tilapiini and Tylochromini).
Tropheini is a tribe of African cichlids, endemic to Lake Tanganyika.

Trematocara

Trematocarini
Others have proposed splitting the Tanganyika cichlids into as many as 12–16 tribes (in addition to previous mentioned, Bathybatini, Benthochromini, Boulengerochromini, Cyphotilapiini, Eretmodini, Greenwoodochromini, Perissodini and Trematocarini).
Trematocara is a genus of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika in Africa.

Lake Rukwa

RukwaLake Rukwa, Tanzania
The lake may also have at times had different inflows and outflows; inward flows from a higher Lake Rukwa, access to Lake Malawi and an exit route to the Nile have all been proposed to have existed at some point in the lake's history.
The alkaline Lake Rukwa lies midway between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi at an elevation of about 800 m, in a parallel branch of the rift system.