Lakota language

LakotaLakhotaStandard Lakota OrthographyDakotaLakȟótiyapiDakota SiouxlanguagelktOgallala SiouxTeton
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.wikipedia
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Lakota people

LakotaSiouxLakota Sioux
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.

Dakota language

DakotaWestern DakotaDakota Sioux
Though generally taught and considered by speakers as a separate language, Lakota is mutually intelligible with the other two languages (such as Dakota language), and is considered by most linguists as one of the three major varieties of the Sioux language.
Dakota is closely related to and mutually intelligible with the Lakota language.

Sioux

DakotaDakota SiouxSiouan
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
7) Lakota (or Lakȟóta, Teton, Teton Sioux)

Sioux language

SiouxDakotaSiouan languages (Dakota/Sioux)
Though generally taught and considered by speakers as a separate language, Lakota is mutually intelligible with the other two languages (such as Dakota language), and is considered by most linguists as one of the three major varieties of the Sioux language.
1) Lakota ( Lakȟóta, Teton, Teton Sioux)

South Dakota

SDState of South DakotaDakota
Speakers of the Lakota language make up one of the largest Native American language speech communities in the United States, with approximately 2,000 speakers, who live mostly in the northern plains states of North Dakota and South Dakota.
As of the 2000 census, 1.90% of the population aged 5 or older speak German at home, while 1.51% speak Lakota or Dakota, and 1.43% Spanish.

Albert White Hat

. Sinte Gleska University is said to have been using an orthography developed by Albert White Hat, but apart from one elementary level textbook, no literature, learning materials, or dictionaries have been developed with this orthography.
Albert White Hat (November 18, 1938June 13, 2013) was a teacher of the Lakota language, and an activist for Sičháŋǧu Lakȟóta traditional culture.

Acute accent

acuteĺsíneadh fada
The vowels are a, e, i, o, u; nasal vowels are aŋ, iŋ, uŋ. Pitch accent is marked with an acute accent: á, é, í, ó, ú, áŋ, íŋ, úŋ on stressed vowels (which receive a higher tone than non-stressed ones)
Lakota. For example, kákhi "in that direction" but kakhí "take something to someone back there".

Stress (linguistics)

stressstressedunstressed
All monomorphemic words have one vowel which carries primary stress and has a higher tone than all other vowels in the word.
In some languages, such as in Spanish, in Portuguese, in Lakota and, to some extent in Italian, stress is even represented in writing using diacritical marks, for example in the Spanish words célebre and celebré. In Russian, stress can shift even across the inflectional pattern of a single word, and diacritical marks are sometimes written for people learning the language, whether as a first or second language.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
In many languages, such as Armenian, Korean, Lakota, Thai, Indo-Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Icelandic, Ancient Greek, and the varieties of Chinese, tenuis and aspirated consonants are phonemic.

Caron

háčekhačekǍ
A caron is used for sounds which are not written with Latin letters in the IPA: č, ǧ, ȟ, š, ž . Aspirates are written with h: čh, kh, ph, th, and velar frication with ȟ: kȟ, pȟ, tȟ. Ejectives are written with an apostrophe: č’, ȟ’, k’, p’, s’, š’, t’‌.
In Slovak it is called mäkčeň (, i.e., "softener" or "palatalization mark"), in Slovenian strešica ("little roof") or kljukica ("little hook"), in Serbo-Croatian kvaka or kvačica ("angled hook" or "small angled hook"), in Lithuanian paukščiukas ("little bird") or varnelė ("little jackdaw"), in Estonian katus ("roof"), in Finnish hattu ("hat"), and in Lakota ičášleče ("wedge").

Subject–object–verb

SOVsubject-object-verbverb-final
The basic word order of Lakota is subject–object–verb, although the order can be changed for expressive purposes (placing the object before the subject to bring the object into focus or placing the subject after the verb to emphasize its status as established information).
Languages that have SOV structure include Ainu, Akkadian, Amharic, Armenian, Assamese, Assyrian, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Burushaski, Cherokee, Dakota, Dogon languages, Elamite, Ancient Greek, Gujarati, Hajong, Hindi, Hittite, Hopi, Ijoid languages, Itelmen, Japanese, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Korean, Kurdish, Classical Latin, Lakota, Manchu, Mande languages, Marathi, Mongolian, Navajo, Nepali, Newari, Nivkh, Nobiin, Pāli, Pashto, Persian, Punjabi, Quechua, Senufo languages, Seri, Sicilian, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Sunuwar and most other Indo-Iranian languages, Somali and virtually all other Cushitic languages, Sumerian, Tibetan and nearly all other Tibeto-Burman languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and all other Dravidian languages, Tigrinya, Turkic languages, Turkish, Urdu, almost all Uto-Aztecan languages, Uzbek, Yukaghir, and virtually all Caucasian languages.

Voiced uvular fricative

uvular approximantʁuvular fricative
The voiced uvular fricative becomes a uvular trill before and in fast speech it is often realized as a voiced velar fricative.

Ejective consonant

ejectiveejectives ejective
Other languages with ejective fricatives are Yuchi, which some sources analyze as having (but not the analysis of the Wikipedia article), Keres dialects, with, and Lakota, with.

Uvular trill

uvulartrilltrill fricatives
The voiced uvular fricative becomes a uvular trill before and in fast speech it is often realized as a voiced velar fricative.

Sinte Gleska University

Sinte Gleska College
. Sinte Gleska University is said to have been using an orthography developed by Albert White Hat, but apart from one elementary level textbook, no literature, learning materials, or dictionaries have been developed with this orthography.
Lakota studies, including the language and aesthetics.

Uvular consonant

Uvularuvularsuvular consonants
In Lakhota the uvular trill is an allophone of the voiced uvular fricative before.

Irrealis mood

irrealispotential moodpotential
In addition, waŋží is an indefinite article used with hypothetical or irrealis objects, and k’uŋ is a definite article used with nouns that have been mentioned previously.

Transitive verb

transitivetransitive verbstransitivity
The other set of morphemes agrees with the object of transitive action verbs or the subject of stative verbs.
A clause with a direct object plus a prepositional phrase may be called pseudo-ditransitive, as in the Lakhota sentence Haŋpíkčeka kiŋ lená wé-čage ("I made those moccasins for him").

Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

Pine RidgePine Ridge ReservationPine Ridge Agency
A Lakota language immersion daycare center is scheduled to open at Pine Ridge.
The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota: Cankpe Opi Wakpala). On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's (Big Foot) band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 mi westward to Wounded Knee Creek where they made camp.

Mandan language

Mandanmhq
(Compare with the similar examples in Mandan.)
Compare the similar examples in Lakhota.

Dual (grammatical number)

dualdual numberdual form
Verbs are inflected for first-, second- or third person, and for singular, dual or plural grammatical number.
Lakota (only the personal pronouns, always means "you and I")

Siouan languages

SiouanSiouan languageSiouan-speaking
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.

Variety (linguistics)

varietiesvarietylect
Though generally taught and considered by speakers as a separate language, Lakota is mutually intelligible with the other two languages (such as Dakota language), and is considered by most linguists as one of the three major varieties of the Sioux language.

Indigenous languages of the Americas

indigenous languagesNative American languagesNative American
Speakers of the Lakota language make up one of the largest Native American language speech communities in the United States, with approximately 2,000 speakers, who live mostly in the northern plains states of North Dakota and South Dakota.