Lamuri Kingdom

LamuriLambriIlamuri-DesamKingdom of LamuriLamuri Sultanate
Lamuri (or Lambri) was a kingdom in northern Sumatra, Indonesia from the Srivijaya period until the early 16th century.wikipedia
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Aceh

Aceh ProvinceAchehAtjeh
Lamuri is generally considered to be located in the Aceh province near Banda Aceh.
Islam reached Aceh (Kingdoms of Fansur and Lamuri) around 1250 AD.

Sumatra

SumateraSumatra IslandSumatran
Lamuri (or Lambri) was a kingdom in northern Sumatra, Indonesia from the Srivijaya period until the early 16th century.
Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri (Lamuri, Lambri or Ramni) in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern-day Banda Aceh which was the first landfall for traders.

Banda Aceh

KutarajaAcehBanda Aceh, Indonesia
Lamuri is generally considered to be located in the Aceh province near Banda Aceh.
Its first mention in western accounts comes from 1292 when Marco Polo and his expedition visited the city, referred to as 'Lambri' from Lamuri Kingdom which previously existed there and noted as the logical first port of call for travellers from Arabia and India to Indonesia.

Srivijaya

Srivijaya EmpireSriwijayaSri Vijaya
Lamuri (or Lambri) was a kingdom in northern Sumatra, Indonesia from the Srivijaya period until the early 16th century.
Additionally, Zhao Rugua said that Srivijaya "was still a great power at the beginning of the thirteenth century" with 15 colonies: Pong-fong (Pahang), Tong-ya-nong (Terengganu), Ling-ya-si-kia (Langkasuka), Kilan-tan (Kelantan), Fo-lo-an (Dungun, eastern part of Malay Peninsula, a town within state of Terengganu), Ji-lo-t'ing (Cherating), Ts'ien-mai (Semawe, Malay Peninsula), Pa-t'a (Sungai Paka, located in Terengganu of Malay Peninsula), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralinga, Ligor or Nakhon Si Thammarat, South Thailand), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, (Krabi) northern part of Malay peninsula), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-t'o (Sunda), Lan-wu-li (Lamuri at Aceh), Kien-pi (Jambi) and Si-lan (Cambodia or Ceylon .

Nagarakretagama

NagarakertagamaNegarakertagamaNagarakrtagama
In the Javanese work of 1365 Nagarakretagama, it is named Lamuri, and in the Malay Annals, Lambri. The 14th century work Nagarakretagama listed Lamuri as one of the vassal states of the Majapahit.
Tamiyang (Aceh Tamiang Regency), negara Perlak (Peureulak) and Padang Lawas, are noted in the west, together with Samudra (Samudra Pasai) and Lamuri, Batan (Bintan), Lampung, and Barus.

Barus

FansurBarus Hulu
In the 10th century Al-Masudi wrote that Ramin (i.e. Lamuri) was "well populated and governed by kings. They are full of gold mines, and nearby is the land of Fansur, whence is derived the fansuri camphor, which is only found there in large quantities in the years that have many storms and earthquakes".
Other related sites in Sumatra includes Lamuri in Aceh and Pannai in North Sumatra.

Tamil inscriptions in the Malay world

Tanjore inscriptionTamil inscriptions in MalaysiaThanjavur inscription
The only mention of the kingdom in Indian sources appears in the Tanjore inscription of 1030 which named it as Ilamuridesam in Tamil.

Ming treasure voyages

treasure voyagesvoyagesexpeditions
By the early 15th century when Zheng He's voyages passed through Lamuri, the ruler of Lamuri was said to profess the Islamic faith, and that its estimated population of over 1,000 families were all Muslims, according to Yingya Shenglan written by Ma Huan who was in Zheng He's fleet.
The treasure fleet sailed to Champa, Java, Malacca, Aru, Semudera, Lambri, Ceylon, Quilon, and Calicut.

Lakawood

Laka wood
He also noted that it produced the best-quality lakawood, and later records showed that its king presented the product to the Chinese emperor as tribute during the Ming dynasty.
Lambri in Sumatra was mentioned as producing the best quality lakawood.

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra CholaRajendra IChola empire
In 1025, the port was attacked in the raids on Srivijaya led by Rajendra Chola, and Lamuri appeared to have come under the influence of the Tamils.
One record of Rajendra Chola describes him as the King of Lamuri in north Sumatra.

Majapahit

Majapahit EmpireMajapahit KingdomKing of Majapahit
The 14th century work Nagarakretagama listed Lamuri as one of the vassal states of the Majapahit.
Tamiyang (Aceh Tamiang Regency), negara Perlak (Peureulak) and Padang Lawas, are noted in the west, together with Samudra (Samudra Pasai) and Lamuri, Batan (Bintan), Lampung, and Barus.

Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
Lamuri (or Lambri) was a kingdom in northern Sumatra, Indonesia from the Srivijaya period until the early 16th century.

Aceh Sultanate

AcehSultanate of Acehsultan of Aceh
Accounts of Lamuri have been given in various sources from the 9th century onwards, and it is thought to have become absorbed into the Aceh Sultanate by the early 16th century.

Lingwai Daida

Ling-wai tai-taRepresentative Answers from the South
In Chinese records, it was first referred to as Lanli in Lingwai Daida by Zhou Qufei in 1178, later Lanwuli in Zhu Fan Zhi, Nanwuli (喃Kangxi Style Kangxi Radical 030.svg巫哩) in Daoyi Zhilüe, and other similar variations.

Zhu Fan Zhi

Chu-fan-chiZhufan ZhiChu Fan Chi
In Chinese records, it was first referred to as Lanli in Lingwai Daida by Zhou Qufei in 1178, later Lanwuli in Zhu Fan Zhi, Nanwuli (喃Kangxi Style Kangxi Radical 030.svg巫哩) in Daoyi Zhilüe, and other similar variations.

Daoyi Zhilüe

Dao Yi Zhi LueDaoyi ZhilueDaoyi Zhilüe Guangzheng Xia
In Chinese records, it was first referred to as Lanli in Lingwai Daida by Zhou Qufei in 1178, later Lanwuli in Zhu Fan Zhi, Nanwuli (喃Kangxi Style Kangxi Radical 030.svg巫哩) in Daoyi Zhilüe, and other similar variations.

The Travels of Marco Polo

TravelsIl MilioneTravels of Marco Polo
In European sources it appears as Lambri (for example in The Travels of Marco Polo), Lamuri, or their variants (Lamori, Lambry, etc.).

Malay Annals

Sejarah MelayuSulalatus al-SalatinSulalatus Salatin
In the Javanese work of 1365 Nagarakretagama, it is named Lamuri, and in the Malay Annals, Lambri.

Ibn Khordadbeh

Ibn KhurradadhbihIbn KhurdadhbihEbn Khordādbeh
The first mention of Lamuri may be in the 9th century by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbih who wrote: "Beyond Serandib is the isle of Ram(n)i, where the rhinoceros can be seen. ... This island produces bamboo and brazilwood, the roots of which are antidote for deadly poisons. ... This country produces tall camphor trees."

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
The first mention of Lamuri may be in the 9th century by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbih who wrote: "Beyond Serandib is the isle of Ram(n)i, where the rhinoceros can be seen. ... This island produces bamboo and brazilwood, the roots of which are antidote for deadly poisons. ... This country produces tall camphor trees."

Paubrasilia

brazilwoodCaesalpinia echinatapernambuco
The first mention of Lamuri may be in the 9th century by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbih who wrote: "Beyond Serandib is the isle of Ram(n)i, where the rhinoceros can be seen. ... This island produces bamboo and brazilwood, the roots of which are antidote for deadly poisons. ... This country produces tall camphor trees."

Cinnamomum camphora

Camphor Laurelcamphor treecamphor
The first mention of Lamuri may be in the 9th century by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbih who wrote: "Beyond Serandib is the isle of Ram(n)i, where the rhinoceros can be seen. ... This island produces bamboo and brazilwood, the roots of which are antidote for deadly poisons. ... This country produces tall camphor trees."

Bay of Bengal

Gulf of BengalHarkandBay of Bangal
According to Akhbar al-Sin wa'l Hind (An Account of China and India), Ramni "produces numerous elephants as well as brazilwood and bamboos. The island is washed by two seas ... Harkand and that of Salahit."

Strait of Malacca

Straits of MalaccaMalacca StraitMalacca Straits
According to Akhbar al-Sin wa'l Hind (An Account of China and India), Ramni "produces numerous elephants as well as brazilwood and bamboos. The island is washed by two seas ... Harkand and that of Salahit."

Al-Masudi

al-Mas'udiMasudiAbu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī
In the 10th century Al-Masudi wrote that Ramin (i.e. Lamuri) was "well populated and governed by kings. They are full of gold mines, and nearby is the land of Fansur, whence is derived the fansuri camphor, which is only found there in large quantities in the years that have many storms and earthquakes".