Lan Xang

Kingdom of Lan XangLan Xang Hom KhaoLan Xang KingdomLaotian kingdomsLinzin1478 invasion of Kingdom of Lan XangJames McCarthy's account of 1894Kingdom of Lan XaKingdom of LanxangLane Xang Kingdom
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ລ້ານຊ້າງຮົ່ມຂາວ, lān sāng hom khāo, ; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1354 to 1707.wikipedia
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Laos

LaotianLaoLao People's Democratic Republic
The kingdom is the precursor for the country of Laos and the basis for its national historic and cultural identity.
Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (Kingdom of a Million Elephants Under the White Parasol), which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia.

Champasak Province

ChampasakChampassakChampassack
The geography Lan Xang would occupy had been originally settled by indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking tribes which gave rise to the Bronze Age cultures in Ban Chiang (today part of Isan, Thailand) and the Đông Sơn culture as well as Iron Age peoples near Xiangkhoang Plateau on the Plain of Jars, Funan, and Chenla (near Vat Phou in Champasak Province).
It is one of the three principalities that succeeded the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.

Isan

northeastern Thailandnortheasternnortheast
The geography Lan Xang would occupy had been originally settled by indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking tribes which gave rise to the Bronze Age cultures in Ban Chiang (today part of Isan, Thailand) and the Đông Sơn culture as well as Iron Age peoples near Xiangkhoang Plateau on the Plain of Jars, Funan, and Chenla (near Vat Phou in Champasak Province).
After the Khmer Empire began to decline in the 13th century, Isan was dominated by the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang, which had been established by Fa Ngum.

Lao people

LaoLaotianLaotians
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ລ້ານຊ້າງຮົ່ມຂາວ, lān sāng hom khāo, ; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1354 to 1707. Continuing his conquests Fa Ngum turned toward the Sip Song Chau Taialong the Red and Black River valleys, which were heavily populated with Lao.
The Kingdom of Lanxang, the "Land of One Million Elephants", began in 1354 AD, when Somdej Phra Chao Fa Ngum (1354 - 1373 AD) returned to Mueang Sua, thence renamed Xieng Thong and now known as Luang Prabang.

Fa Ngum

Chao Fa NgumFa Ngum’sKing Fa Ngum
The traditional court histories of Lan Xang begin in the Year of the Nāga 1319 (the nāga a mythical serpent of the Mekong and a protector spirit of the kingdom) with the birth of Fa Ngum. Fa Ngum again led Lan Xang to war in the 1360s against Sukhothai, in which Lan Xang was victorious in defense of their territory but gave the competing court factions and the war weary population a justification to depose Fa Ngum in favor of his son Oun Huean.
Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara ລາວ: ສົມເດັດ ພຣະບາດ ອັນຍາ ຟ້າ ລັດທຸຣັນຍາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນາ ຄະນະຍຸດທາ ມະຫາຣາຊ໌ ພຣະບາດ ຣາຊະທໍຣະນາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນະ ນະຄອນ, better known as Fa Ngum (Laotian: ຟ້າງູ່ມ ; 1316 – 1393, born in Muang Sua, died in Nan), established the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang in 1354.

Vientiane

Vientiane PrefectureDong DocViang Chan
With the rise of the Sukhothai Kingdom the principal city-states of Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) and south to the twin cities of Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane), came increasingly under Tai influence. Following the death of the Sukhothai king Ram Khamhaeng, and internal disputes within the kingdom of Lan Na, both Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane) and Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) were independent Lao-Tai mandalas until the founding of Lan Xang in 1354. In 1591 he was crowned in Vientiane, gathered an army and marched to Luang Prabang where he reunited the cities, declared Lan Xang independence and cast off any allegiance to the Toungoo Empire.
In 1354, when Fa Ngum founded the kingdom of Lan Xang.

Samsenethai

King SamsenthaiOun HueanSamsenthai
Fa Ngum again led Lan Xang to war in the 1360s against Sukhothai, in which Lan Xang was victorious in defense of their territory but gave the competing court factions and the war weary population a justification to depose Fa Ngum in favor of his son Oun Huean. In 1416, at the age of sixty, Samsenthai died and was succeeded by his song Lan Kham Daeng.
Samsenethai also called Oun Huan was the second king of Lan Xang, the son of Fa Ngum, whom he succeeded.

Nang Keo Phimpha

Maha DeviQueen Keava Rudhi Fa (Nang Keo Lot Fa)Queen Keo Lot Fa
from 1428 to 1440 seven kings ruled Lan Xang, all were killed by assassination or intrigue guided by a Queen known only by her title as Maha Devi or as Nang Keo Phimpha "The Cruel".
Nang Keo Phimpha (1343–1438), an epithet meaning literally "The Cruel", was Queen of Lan Xang in 1438, taking the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Sadu Chao Nying Kaeva Bhima Fa Mahadevi.

Visoun

King VisounKing VixunLaksana Vijaya Kumara
King Visoun (1500–1520) was a major patron of the arts and during his reign the classical literature of Lan Xang was first written. King Visoun, his son Photisarath, his grandson Setthathirath, and his great grandson Nokeo Koumane would provide Lan Xang with a succession of strong leaders who were able to preserve and restore the kingdom despite tremendous international challenges in the years ahead.
Visoun (Vixun also Visunarat) was the king of Lan Xang from 1500 until 1520.

Lan Kham Deng

Prince Lamakamadinga Lan Kham Deng
In 1416, at the age of sixty, Samsenthai died and was succeeded by his song Lan Kham Daeng.
Lan Kham Deng (ພະເຈົ້າລ້ານຄຳແດງ, 1375–1428) was the third king of the Lao state of Lan Xang.

Muang Phuan

Principality of PhuanTran NinhXiangkhouang
However, Prince Nho of Muang Phuan (Muang Phoueune) offered assistance and vassalage to Fa Ngum for assistance in a succession dispute of his own and help in securing Muang Phuan from the Đại Việt.
In the mid-14th century Muang Phuan was incorporated into the Lan Xang Kingdom under King Fa Ngum.

Luang Prabang

Louangphrabang DistrictLouangprabang DistrictChiang Thong
With the rise of the Sukhothai Kingdom the principal city-states of Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) and south to the twin cities of Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane), came increasingly under Tai influence. The fertile northern Mekong valleys were occupied by the Dvaravati culture of the Mon people and subsequently by the Khmer, where the principal city-state in the north was known then as Muang Sua and alternately as Xieng Dong Xieng Thong "The City of Flame Trees beside the River Dong", (modern city of Luang Prabang). Following the death of the Sukhothai king Ram Khamhaeng, and internal disputes within the kingdom of Lan Na, both Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane) and Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) were independent Lao-Tai mandalas until the founding of Lan Xang in 1354. In 1591 he was crowned in Vientiane, gathered an army and marched to Luang Prabang where he reunited the cities, declared Lan Xang independence and cast off any allegiance to the Toungoo Empire.
Xieng Dong Xieng Thong in 1353 became the capital of the Lan Xang kingdom.

Phra Lak Phra Ram

The Tripitaka was transcribed from Pali to Lao, and the Lao version of the Ramayana or Pra Lak Pra Lam was also written.
It is also very popular in some parts of Northeastern Thailand, or Isan, a region of Thailand populated by a large number of Lao-speaking people and formerly part of Lanxang.

Setthathirath

Chai ChethaChaiyachetthaChaiyasetthathirat
King Visoun, his son Photisarath, his grandson Setthathirath, and his great grandson Nokeo Koumane would provide Lan Xang with a succession of strong leaders who were able to preserve and restore the kingdom despite tremendous international challenges in the years ahead.
Throughout the 1560s until his death, he successfully defended his kingdom of Lan Xang against military campaigns of Burmese conqueror Bayinnaung, who had already subdued Xieng Mai (Chiang Mai) in 1558 and Ayutthaya in 1564.

Sukhothai Kingdom

SukhothaiSukhothai periodSukhothai era
With the rise of the Sukhothai Kingdom the principal city-states of Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) and south to the twin cities of Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane), came increasingly under Tai influence.
The vassal kingdoms, first Uttaradit in the north, then soon after the Laotian kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane (Wiangchan), liberated themselves from their overlord.

Bayinnaung

King BayinnaungKyawhtin Nawrahta1563–1569 invasion of Siam
In 1556 Burma, under King Bayinnaung invaded Lanna.
During his 31-year reign, which has been called the "greatest explosion of human energy ever seen in Burma", Bayinnaung assembled what was probably the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Burma, the Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur and Siam.

Thailand

🇹🇭ThaiSiam
The geography Lan Xang would occupy had been originally settled by indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking tribes which gave rise to the Bronze Age cultures in Ban Chiang (today part of Isan, Thailand) and the Đông Sơn culture as well as Iron Age peoples near Xiangkhoang Plateau on the Plain of Jars, Funan, and Chenla (near Vat Phou in Champasak Province).
Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.

Sip Song Chau Tai

Sipsong Chau TaiT'ai FederationT'ai Highlands
Continuing his conquests Fa Ngum turned toward the Sip Song Chau Taialong the Red and Black River valleys, which were heavily populated with Lao.
In premodern Southeast Asia's complex political geography, Sip Song Chau Tai lay at the intersection of several larger mandalas (circles of influence): At different times, it had to pay tribute to China, Vietnam, Lan Xang/Luang Phrabang (in today's Laos) and/or Siam (Thailand).

Myanmar

BurmeseBurma🇲🇲
The move allowed Photisarath to better administer the kingdom and to respond to the outlying provinces which bordered the Đại Việt, Ayutthaya and the growing power of Burma.
His successor Bayinnaung went on to conquer a vast swath of mainland Southeast Asia including the Shan states, Lan Na, Manipur, Mong Mao, the Ayutthaya Kingdom, Lan Xang and southern Arakan.

Mandala (political model)

mandalamandala systemmandalas
Following the death of the Sukhothai king Ram Khamhaeng, and internal disputes within the kingdom of Lan Na, both Vieng Chan Vieng Kham (Vientiane) and Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) were independent Lao-Tai mandalas until the founding of Lan Xang in 1354.
The most notable tributary states were post-Angkor Cambodia, Lan Xang (succeeded by the Kingdom of Vientiane and Luang Prabang) and Lanna.

Sourigna Vongsa

King Sourigna VongsaSuliyavongsa
Under the reign of King Sourigna Vongsa (1637–1694) Lan Xang experienced a fifty seven-year period of peace and restoration.
Sourigna Vongsa was the king of Lan Xang whose reign is considered the golden age of Laos.

First Toungoo Empire

Toungoo EmpireBurmeseTaungoo Empire
In 1591 he was crowned in Vientiane, gathered an army and marched to Luang Prabang where he reunited the cities, declared Lan Xang independence and cast off any allegiance to the Toungoo Empire.
He spent the next decade keeping the empire intact, putting down rebellions in Siam, Lan Xang and the northernmost Shan states.

Attapeu Province

AttapeuAttapuAttapu Province
The Khmer must have rallied and Lan Xang retreated, Setthathirath went missing near Attapeu.
The province was part of the Lane Xang Kingdom during the reign of King Saysethathirath.

Nawrahta Minsaw

King Nawrahta MinsawNoratra MangsosriPrince Tharrawaddy Min
In 1593 King Nokeo Koumane launched an attack against Lanna and the Taungoo Prince Tharrawaddy Min.
He declared independence in 1597 after having defeated a 1595–96 invasion by Lan Xang on his own.

Kingdom of Luang Phrabang

Luang PhrabangLuang PrabangLuang Prabang Kingdom
In 1707 Lan Xang was divided and the kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane emerged.
The Kingdom of Luang Phrabang was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang.