A report on LaosLan Xang and Lao people

Kingdom of Lan Xang (green) in 1400 CE
Statue of Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang kingdom
Map showing linguistic family tree overlaid on a geographic distribution map of Tai-Kadai family. This map only shows general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes, not specific routes, which would have snaked along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Mainland Southeast Asia in the early 15th century
Teal: Lan Xang
Purple: Lan Na
Orange: Sukhothai Kingdom
Blue Violet: Ayutthaya Kingdom
Red: Khmer Empire
Yellow: Champa
Blue: Đại Việt
Lan Xang's zone of influence and neighbours, c. 1540
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Lan Xang and Mainland Southeast Asia in 1540 CE
The French forced the Siamese to renounce their claims to Lao territory in 1893, thus signalling the genesis of the modern Lao state.
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
Wat Visoun, as seen by Louis Delaporte c.1867
Offering of food to monks to make merit at a temple in Vientiane
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Wat Visoun, Luang Prabang
A spirit house near Wat Kham Chanot, Udon Thani Province, Thailand
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Statue of King Sai Setthathirath at Pha That Luang, Vientiane
A statue of Lord Brahma (background) at a temple in Vientiane.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Wat Xieng Thong, Luang Prabang
A dish of Tam mak hoong, ping gai, and khao nio, a very common Lao meal.
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Seated Buddha figure from Lan Xang, 17th century
Paddy fields in Laos
Pha That Luang and its place in Vientiane
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Monk repainting a Nāga at Pha That Luang
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
The Khone Falls, on the Mekong River.
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ລ້ານຊ້າງຮົ່ມຂາວ lān sāng hôm khāo, ; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1353 to 1707.

- Lan Xang

They are the majority ethnic group of Laos, making up 53.2% of the total population.

- Lao people

Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to Lan Xang, which existed from the 14th century to the 18th century as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia.

- Laos

The kingdom is the precursor for the country of Laos and the basis for its national historic and cultural identity.

- Lan Xang

The politically and culturally dominant Lao people make up 53.2% of the population, mostly in the lowlands.

- Laos

The Kingdom of Lanxang, the "Land of One Million Elephants", began in 1354 AD, when Somdej Phra Chao Fa Ngum (1354 - 1373 AD) returned to Mueang Sua (ເມືອງຊວາ, เมืองซวา), thence renamed Xieng Thong (ຊຽງທອງ, เชียงทอง) and now known as Luang Prabang.

- Lao people

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Thailand

3 links

Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature
Map showing geographic distribution of Tai-Kadai linguistic family. Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Taksin the Great enthroned himself as a Thai king, 1767.
Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest in 2010
Thailand map of Köppen climate classification.
The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.
Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand
King Bhumibol Adulyadej in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2012
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet, an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy
A Royal Thai Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019
Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1890 to 2018
A proportional representation of Thailand's exports
Thailand has long been one of the largest rice exporters in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.
Scientists are working in the lab
The BTS Skytrain is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok
Population pyramid 2016
Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand
Samanera of Theravada Buddhism, the most practised religion in Thailand.
Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.
Thailand is a country where school uniform is mandatory.
Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand.
Thai women wearing sabai, Jim Thompson House
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Scene from the Ramakien depicted on a mural at Wat Phra Kaew.
Two sculptures guarding the eastern gate to the main chapel of Wat Arun.
Sculptures of Phra Aphai Mani and the Mermaid from the epic poem Phra Aphai Mani, a work of Sunthorn Phu.
Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.
Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport
Lumpinee Boxing Stadium

The country is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the extremity of Myanmar.

Vientiane was destroyed and a large number of Lao people were relocated to Khorat Plateau as a result.

Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.

Wat Si Saket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.

Anouvong

3 links

Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์; ), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า; ), (1767 – 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.

Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์; ), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า; ), (1767 – 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.

Wat Si Saket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Chao Anouvong Park in Vientiane

However, the Emerald Buddha and several other important Buddha images were taken to Thonburi, and the sons and daughter of Ong Bun or King Siribounyasan were taken as hostages, along with several thousand Lao families, who were resettled in Saraburi, north of the Thai capital.

He was permitted to take with him the Phra Bang, a gold Buddharupa that had, according to legend had been originally brought from Angkor by Fa Ngum, the first king of Lan Xang, and was taken to Thonburi in 1779.

In 2010, to coincide with the 450th Anniversary celebrations of Vientiane, the Laos government created Chao Anouvong Park, complete with a large bronze statue of the locally revered ruler.

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828)

2 links

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.
Southeast Asia c. 1707-1828 showing the Lao kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Champasak, and the principality of Phuan (Xieng Khuang)
Statues of Phra Ta and Phra Vo in modern city of Nong Bua Lamphu.
Wat Sisaket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Haw Phra Kaew, Vientiane. Former Royal Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
Buddha statues from Vientiane, damaged in the invasion
Victory Chedi, Wat Tung Sawang Chaiyaphum
Haw Phra Kaew in Vientiane in ruins clamied by forest wines, depicted by Louis Delaporte, the French Explorer of Mekong, in 1867.
Statue of "Grandma Mo" or Thao Suranari who is revered as one of Thailand's national heroines.

The Lao Rebellion of 1826–1828 (also known as Anouvong’s Rebellion or the Vientiane-Siam War) was an attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

In January 1827 the Lao armies of the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak moved south and west across the Khorat Plateau, advancing as far as Saraburi, just three days march from the Siamese capitol of Bangkok.

The slave raids and forced population transfers conducted by Siam led to a demographic disparity between the areas that would ultimately become Thailand and Laos, and facilitated the "civilizing mission" of the French into Lao areas during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Lao language

1 links

Map showing the general migration patterns and diversification of the Tai peoples and languages from the original Tai Urheimat of southeastern China.
Wat Phra That Phanom in Nakhon Phanom. Built in the 16th century over earlier Khmer ruins when Isan was part of Lan Xang, the temple is an important place of pilgrimage, attracting Lao from Laos as well as Isan to its temple festivals.
Temple mural of Wat Photaram in Maha Sarakham Province. Dating to the reign of Siamese Ruler Rama III (1788-1851), the writing is in the Tai Noi script, an old form of the Lao alphabet.
A bilingual Lao-French street sign in Vientiane. Although the influence of French on the Lao language has waned considerably, hundreds of words of French origin are used in Laos.
Lao script on a sign at Wat That Luang, Vientiane.
An example of the Tai Tham alphabet formerly used in Laos for religious literature.
A sutra in the Khom script. This Khmer script was used to write Buddhist, Brahmanic and ritual texts.

Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ, 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ, 'Lao language'), is a Kra–Dai language of the Lao people.

It is spoken in Laos, where it is the official language for around 7 million people, as well as in northeast Thailand, where it is used by around 23 million people, usually referred to as Isan.

Taking advantage of rapid decline in the Khmer Empire, Phra Chao Fa Ngoum (ຟ້າງູ່ມ ) defeated the Khmer and united the Tai mueang of what is now Laos and Isan into the mandala kingdom of Lan Xang in 1354.

Ban Tha Lat, Mon inscription (9th CE), was found in 1968, in an area where other pieces of 
archaeological evidence testified to an ancient Mon presence. It is now at Ho Phra Kaeo Museum, Vientiane, Laos

Vientiane

1 links

Ban Tha Lat, Mon inscription (9th CE), was found in 1968, in an area where other pieces of 
archaeological evidence testified to an ancient Mon presence. It is now at Ho Phra Kaeo Museum, Vientiane, Laos
Buddha sculptures at Pha That Luang
Haw Phra Kaew or Temple of the Emerald Buddha
Wat Si Muang
Buddha Park
Vientiane from Patuxai
Wattay International Airport
Older taxis in Vientiane are being replaced by newer Chinese-made cars, like this Soueast Lioncel.
Thanaleng Train Station

Vientiane (, ; ວຽງຈັນ, Viangchan, ) is the capital and largest city of Laos.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, the time when the Lao and Thai people are believed to have entered Southeast Asia from Southern China, the few remaining Khmers in the area were either killed, removed, or assimilated into the Lao civilization, which would soon overtake the area.

In 1354, when Fa Ngum founded the kingdom of Lan Xang.