A report on Land mine

Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
Swedish FFV 028 anti-tank-mines of the German Bundeswehr (inert versions)
Roman caltrop
Illustration of the "self-tripped trespass land mine" from the Huolongjing
'Underground sky soaring thunder', land mines connected to weapons above ground, from the Wubei Zhi
Cutaway diagram of the S-mine
The Schu-mine 42, the most common mine used in the Second World War
Claymore mine with firing device and electric blasting cap assembly
An L9 Bar Mine
Section of an anti-tank mine. Note the yellow main charge wrapped around a red booster charge, and the secondary fuze well on the side of the mine designed for an anti-handling device
Diagram of components
Examples of anti-handling devices
Anti personnel mine in Cambodia
A U.S. Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal technician removing the fuze from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq
Argentine minefield at Port William, Falkland Islands created in 1982; clearance inhibited by boggy terrain
Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still valid more than 40 years after creation of the field by the Syrian army
School posters in Karabakh educating children on mines and UXO
British Royal Engineers practice mine clearance
Party states to the Ottawa Treaty (in blue)
Bomb disposal Advanced Bomb Suit

Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

- Land mine
Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50

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U.S. Honest John missile warhead cutaway around 1960, showing M134 bomblets filled with Sarin

Cluster munition

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Form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.

Form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.

U.S. Honest John missile warhead cutaway around 1960, showing M134 bomblets filled with Sarin
Half of a surface-to-air missile site in North Vietnam blanketed in exploding bomblets dispersed by a U.S. cluster munition, Vietnam War
SD2 Butterfly Bomb circa 1940. Wings rotate as bomb falls, unscrewing the arming spindle connected to the fuze.
A US Vietnam era BLU-3 cluster bomblet
During the Winter War of 1939–1940, the Soviet Union dropped RRAB-3, nicknamed Molotov bread baskets, which scattered incendiary bomblets, on Finland.
A U.S. Navy Grumman A-6E Intruder drops CBU-59 cluster bombs over Iranian targets in 1988
A US Navy F/A-18C Hornet launches from USS Nimitz to a mission in Southern Iraq. Among other weapons, the plane carries CBU-100 "Rockeye" cluster bombs.
Monument to victims of the Niš cluster bombing
Unexploded cluster sub-munition, probably a BLU-26 type. Plain of Jars, Laos.
M77 submunition of type fired against Lebanon in 1986. Each MLRS rocket has 644 M77 packed in the warhead.
Ban Advocates from Afghanistan and Ethiopia demonstrating outside of the Dublin conference
Erik Thorstvedt leads a Norwegian parade celebrating the effectuation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, 31 July 2010. (Photo: Norsk Folkehjelp)
Nations subscribing to the Wellington Declaration, which led to the Convention on Cluster Munitions
Ugandan demonstrator at the May 2008 Dublin conference for the Convention on Cluster Munitions
USAF B-1 Lancer dropping CBU cluster bombs

Other cluster munitions are designed to destroy runways or electric power transmission lines, disperse chemical or biological weapons, or to scatter land mines.

Vietnam War: Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldiers show Vietnamese villagers types of Viet Cong booby traps.

Booby trap

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Device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a human or another animal.

Device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a human or another animal.

Vietnam War: Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldiers show Vietnamese villagers types of Viet Cong booby traps.
A group of 105mm artillery shells with plastic explosive stuffed into their fuze pockets. Each of the 5 shells has been linked together with red detcord to make them detonate simultaneously. To turn this assembly into a booby trap, the final step would be to connect an M142 firing device to the detcord and hide everything under some form of cover e.g. newspapers or a bed-sheet.
Booby-trap firing devices, c. 1941: press, pull and release switches; mass-produced components intended for the construction of booby traps.
A Yugoslav POMZ anti-personnel mine that has been booby trapped with a hand grenade. A deminer could disable the stake mine, only to set off the hand-grenade when they remove the mine for disposal. (Balkans 1996)
Simple Trou de loup booby trap: concealed pitfall with sharp spike at the bottom
USSR booby trap firing device - pull fuze: normally connected to a tripwire
Alternative design of USSR booby trap firing device - pull fuze: normally connected to tripwire
USSR booby-trap firing device - pressure fuze: victim steps on loose floorboard with fuze concealed underneath

There is no clear division between a booby trap and buried conventional land mines triggered by a tripwire or directional mine.

British and Belgian officers stand beside an unexploded German shell in Flanders, during the First World War

Unexploded ordnance

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British and Belgian officers stand beside an unexploded German shell in Flanders, during the First World War
Dud shell lodged in a tree, Argonne Forest, First World War
1943 poster by Abram Games warning against leaving blinds on firing ranges
A man holding an unexploded mortar shell during a United Nations Mine Action Service demonstration in Mogadishu
An EOD technician removing sand from a mortar shell during a demonstration.
Clearing of explosives on a road in Afghanistan.
Unexploded BLU-26 "bombie" in Laos
Bomb crater left after an approximately 1000 lb (0.4 tonne) US Air Force UXO exploded without warning in southern Laos in the year 2000.
Corroded but live Iraqi artillery shell dating from the Gulf War (1990–1991)
Discarded RGD-5 hand grenade (live but unfuzed) in Northern Kuwait dating from 1991.
Disposal of a 4,000 lb blockbuster bomb dropped by the RAF during World War II. Found in the Rhine near Koblenz, 4 December 2011. A linear shaped charge has been placed on top of the casing
A British NCO prepares to dispose of an unexploded bomb during the First World War.
Demining of UXO in Palau

Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), and explosive remnants of war (ERW or ERoW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, and other munitions) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.

Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005

Improvised explosive device

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Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.

Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.

Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005
This Cougar in Al Anbar, Iraq, was hit by a directed charge IED, approximately 90 –.
X-ray of a suitcase showing a pipe bomb and a laptop.
Improvised explosive device in Iraq. The concave copper shape on top defines an explosively formed penetrator/projectile
Artillery shells and gasoline cans discovered in the back of a pick-up truck in Iraq
A U.S. Marine in Iraq shown with a robot used for disposal of buried devices
Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer, which is used by the IDF Combat Engineering Corps for clearing heavy belly charges and booby-trapped buildings.
U.S. Marines with Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) destroy an improvised explosive device cache in southern Afghanistan in June 2010.
A Stryker lies on its side following a buried IED blast in Iraq. (2007)
Oil-drum roadside IED removed from culvert in 1984
Wheelbarrow counter-IED robot on streets of Northern Ireland in 1978
Captured IEDs from a cache left behind by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Syria, 26 January 2019

In the conflicts of the 21st century, anti-personnel improvised explosive devices (IED) have partially replaced conventional or military landmines as the source of injury to dismounted (pedestrian) soldiers and civilians.

The typical configuration of anti-handling devices used with M15 anti-tank landmines. The upper diagram shows a pull-fuze screwed into a secondary fuze well in the side of the mine. Additionally, an M5 anti-lift device has been screwed into another fuze well, hidden under the mine. An inexperienced deminer might detect and render safe the pull-fuze, but then be killed when he lifted the mine, triggering the M5 pressure-release firing device underneath. The lower diagram shows two anti-tank landmines connected by a cord attached to the upper mine's carrying handle. The cord is attached to a pull fuze installed in a secondary fuze well in the bottom mine.

Anti-handling device

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The typical configuration of anti-handling devices used with M15 anti-tank landmines. The upper diagram shows a pull-fuze screwed into a secondary fuze well in the side of the mine. Additionally, an M5 anti-lift device has been screwed into another fuze well, hidden under the mine. An inexperienced deminer might detect and render safe the pull-fuze, but then be killed when he lifted the mine, triggering the M5 pressure-release firing device underneath. The lower diagram shows two anti-tank landmines connected by a cord attached to the upper mine's carrying handle. The cord is attached to a pull fuze installed in a secondary fuze well in the bottom mine.
Cutaway view of an M4 anti-tank mine dating from circa 1945, showing two additional fuze wells designed for use with booby-trap firing devices. Either or both fuze wells may have firing devices screwed into them if required
A stack of five M15 mines dating from the 1960s. The top two mines show additional fuze wells
Side view of an M19 anti-tank mine, dating from the 1970s showing an additional fuze well on the side of the mine (sealing cap has been removed) designed for use with booby-trap firing devices. There is another empty fuze well (not visible) located underneath the mine

An anti-handling device is an attachment to or an integral part of a landmine or other munition such as some fuze types found in general-purpose air-dropped bombs, cluster bombs and sea mines.

Signatories to the convention (blue) and states parties (purple)

Convention on Cluster Munitions

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International treaty that prohibits all use, transfer, production, and stockpiling of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions ("bomblets") over an area.

International treaty that prohibits all use, transfer, production, and stockpiling of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions ("bomblets") over an area.

Signatories to the convention (blue) and states parties (purple)
Ban Advocates from Afghanistan and Ethiopia demonstrating during the May 2008 Dublin conference

The impetus for the treaty, like that of the 1997 Ottawa Treaty to limit landmines, has been concern over the severe damage and risks to civilians from explosive weapons during and long after attacks.

Ottawa Treaty

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The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction of 1997, known informally as the Ottawa Treaty, the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, or often simply the Mine Ban Treaty, aims at eliminating anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines) around the world.

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction of 1997, known informally as the Ottawa Treaty, the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, or often simply the Mine Ban Treaty, aims at eliminating anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines) around the world.

In January 1997, she visited Angola and walked near a minefield to dramatize its dangers.

Grooved body of a Second World War-era U.S. Mk 2 grenade. The grooves covering the exterior of the grenade are used to aid in the gripping of the grenade when throwing.

Fragmentation (weaponry)

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Grooved body of a Second World War-era U.S. Mk 2 grenade. The grooves covering the exterior of the grenade are used to aid in the gripping of the grenade when throwing.
Diagram of S-mine in the delivery of steel ball fragments
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Early artillery shell, with the fragments it would generate. 1900
Artillery shell fragment from the Gulf War
Grenade fragments in the soft tissue of the lower leg (along with an old fracture of the fibula)

Fragmentation is the process by which the casing, shot, or other components of an anti-personnel weapon, bomb, barrel bomb, land mine, IED, artillery, mortar, tank gun, or autocannon shell, rocket, missile, grenade, etc. are dispersed and/or shattered by the detonation of the explosive filler.

The 'divine fire flying crow' (shen huo fei ya), an aerodynamic winged rocket bomb from the Huolongjing

Huolongjing

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Chinese military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683) during the 14th-century.

Chinese military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683) during the 14th-century.

The 'divine fire flying crow' (shen huo fei ya), an aerodynamic winged rocket bomb from the Huolongjing
A 'fire dragon rising out of the water' (huo long chu shui) multistage rocket from the Huolongjing.
The 'phalanx-charging fire-gourd' (chong zhen huo hu lu), one of many fire lance types discharging lead pellets in the gunpowder blast, an illustration from the Huolongjing.
The 'flying-cloud thunderclap-eruptor' (fei yun pi li pao) from the Huolongjing. A proto-cannon shooting co-viative projectiles, in this case cast-iron shells.
A land mine system known as the 'divine ground damaging explosive ambush device' (di sha shen ji pao shi - mai fu shen ji) from the Huolongjing
A naval mine system known as the 'marine dragon-king' (shui di long wang pao) from the Huolongjing. The trigger mechanism consists of a floating incense stick which lights the fuse once it finishes burning. The fuse travels through a passage of goats' intestines and ignites the submerged explosives in a wrought iron case.
An arrow strapped with gunpowder ready to be shot from a bow. The text reads: gong she huo zhe liu jian (bow firing a fiery pomegranate arrow).
Rocket arrows from the Huolongjing. The right arrow reads 'fire arrow' (huo jian), the middle is an 'dragon shaped arrow frame' (long xing jian jia), and the left is a 'complete fire arrow' (huo jian quan shi).
A 'divine fire arrow shield' (shen huo jian pai). Depiction of a fire arrow rocket launcher from the Huolongjing.
A 'watermelon bomb' (xi gua pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing. It contains 'fire rats,' mini rockets with hooks.
A 'fire brick' (huo zhuan) as depicted in the Huolongjing. It contains mini-rockets bearing sharp little spikes.
Depiction of a' wind-and-dust bomb' (feng chen pao) from the Huolongjing.
A 'rumbling thunder bomb' (hong lei pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing. The text describes ingredients including mini-rockets and caltrops with poisons.
'Dropping from heaven' (tian zhui pao) bombs as depicted in the Huolongjing.
'Bee swarm bombs' (qun feng pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing. Paper casing filled with gunpowder and shrapnel.
A 'divine fire meteor which goes against the wind' (zuan feng shen huo liu xing pao) bomb as depicted in the Huolongjing.
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb known as the 'divine bone dissolving fire oil bomb' (lan gu huo you shen pao) from the Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
A 'flying-sand divine bomb releasing ten thousand fires' (wan huo fei sha shen pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing. A weak casing device possibly used in naval combat.
'Explosive bombs' (zha pao) from the Huolongjing. The device is operated by steel wheels contained in two boxes. When pressed, the wheel boxes are supposed to ignite a spark reaching the buried gunpowder packages, setting off the explosion.
The 'self-tripped trespass land mine' (zi fan pao) from the Huolongjing.
An 'explosive camp land mine' (di lei zha ying) from the Huolongjing. The mine is composed of eight explosive charges held erect by two disc shaped frames.
A 'pear-flower gun' (li hua qiang). A fire lance as depicted in the Huolongjing.
A 'fire gun' (huo qiang). A double barreled fire lance from the Huolongjing. Supposedly they fired in succession, and the second one is lit automatically after the first barrel finishes firing.
An 'awe-inspiring fierce-fire yaksha gun' (shen wei lie huo ye cha chong) as depicted in the Huolongjing.
A 'lotus bunch' (yi ba lian) as depicted in the Huolongjing. It is a bamboo tube firing darts along with flames.
A 'sky-filling spurting-tube' (man tian pen tong) as depicted in the Huolongjing. A bamboo tube filled with a mixture of gunpowder and porcelain fragments.
A 'bandit-striking penetrating gun' (ji zei bian chong) as depicted in the Huolongjing. The first known metal barreled fire lance, it throws low nitrate gunpowder flames along with coviative missiles.
A 'divine moving phalanx-breaking fierce-fire sword-shield' (shen xing po zhen meng huo dao pai) as depicted in the Huolongjing. A mobile shield fitted with fire lances used to break enemy formations.
Essentially a fire lance on a frame, the 'multiple bullets magazine eruptor' (bai zi lian zhu pao) shoots lead shots, which are loaded in a magazine and fed into the barrel when turned around on its axis.
A 'poison fog divine smoke eruptor' (du wu shen yan pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing. Small shells emitting poisonous smoke are fired.
A canister shot known as the 'flying-hidden-bomb cannon' (fei meng pao shi) from the Huolongjing. The poison canister is loaded into an iron barrel fitted to a wooden tiller.
An organ gun known as the 'mother of a hundred bullets gun' (zi mu bai dan chong) from the Huolongjing.
A bronze "thousand ball thunder cannon" (qian zi lei pao) from the Huolongjing.
An 'awe inspiring long range cannon' (wei yuan pao) from the Huolongjing.
The 'crouching tiger cannon' (hu dun pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing.
A 'seven star cannon' (qi xing chong) from the Huolongjing. It was a seven barreled organ gun with two auxiliary guns by its side on a two-wheeled carriage.
A 'barbarian attacking cannon' (gong rong pao) as depicted in the Huolongjing. Chains are attached to the cannon to adjust recoil. Not to be confused with the "Hongyipao".
Reconstruction of the "flying crow with magic fire" (shen huo fei ya).
Hand cannon, Ming dynasty, 1377

The weapons described include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.

Protocol on Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices

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The Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices is a United Nations treaty that restricts the use of land mines, remotely delivered mines, and booby traps.