Landform

This conical hill in Salar de Arizaro, Salta, Argentina called Cono de Arita constitutes a landform.
Karst towers landforms along Lijiang River, Guilin, China

Natural or artificial land feature on the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.

- Landform
This conical hill in Salar de Arizaro, Salta, Argentina called Cono de Arita constitutes a landform.

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Badlands incised into shale at the foot of the North Caineville Plateau, Utah, within the pass carved by the Fremont River and known as the Blue Gate. GK Gilbert studied the landscapes of this area in great detail, forming the observational foundation for many of his studies on geomorphology.

Geomorphology

Scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

Scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

Badlands incised into shale at the foot of the North Caineville Plateau, Utah, within the pass carved by the Fremont River and known as the Blue Gate. GK Gilbert studied the landscapes of this area in great detail, forming the observational foundation for many of his studies on geomorphology.
Surface of the Earth, showing higher elevations in red.
Waves and water chemistry lead to structural failure in exposed rocks
"Cono de Arita" at the dry lake Salar de Arizaro on the Atacama Plateau, in northwestern Argentina. The cone itself is a volcanic edifice, representing complex interaction of intrusive igneous rocks with the surrounding salt.
Lake "Veľké Hincovo pleso" in High Tatras, Slovakia. The lake occupies an "overdeepening" carved by flowing ice that once occupied this glacial valley.
Part of the Great Escarpment in the Drakensberg, southern Africa. This landscape, with its high altitude plateau being incised into by the steep slopes of the escarpment, was cited by Davis as a classic example of his cycle of erosion.
Gorge cut by the Indus river into bedrock, Nanga Parbat region, Pakistan. This is the deepest river canyon in the world. Nanga Parbat itself, the world's 9th highest mountain, is seen in the background.
Wind-eroded alcove near Moab, Utah
Beaver dams, as this one in Tierra del Fuego, constitute a specific form of zoogeomorphology, a type of biogeomorphology.
Seif and barchan dunes in the Hellespontus region on the surface of Mars. Dunes are mobile landforms created by the transport of large volumes of sand by wind.
Features of a glacial landscape
Talus cones on the north shore of Isfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. Talus cones are accumulations of coarse hillslope debris at the foot of the slopes producing the material.
The Ferguson Slide is an active landslide in the Merced River canyon on California State Highway 140, a primary access road to Yosemite National Park.

Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform and terrain history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling.

Autumn landscape in Rybiniszki, Latvia, watercolor by Stanisław Masłowski, 1902 (National Museum in Warsaw, Poland)

Landscape

Autumn landscape in Rybiniszki, Latvia, watercolor by Stanisław Masłowski, 1902 (National Museum in Warsaw, Poland)
A typical Dutch landscape in South Holland
Kukle, Czech Republic
Medieval Ridge and Furrow above Wood Stanway, Gloucestershire, England.
The Batad rice terraces, The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, the first site to be included in the UNESCO World Heritage List cultural landscape category in 1995.
Stourhead garden, Wiltshire, England
Jichang Garden in Wuxi (1506–1521)
Central Park, New York City, US, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted.
The Djabugay language group's mythical being, Damarri, transformed into a mountain range, is seen lying on his back above the Barron River Gorge, looking upwards to the skies, within north-east Australia's wet tropical forested landscape
The Vale of Blackmore, the main setting for Thomas Hardy's novel Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Hambledon Hill towards Stourton Tower
The Tetons and the Snake River (1942) photograph by Ansel Adams
Salomon van Ruisdael, "View of Deventer" (1657).
Thomas Cole "The Course of Empire The Arcadian or Pastoral State", US, 1836.
Laurent Guétal, Lac de l'Eychauda, France, 1886, Museum of Grenoble.
Landscape with scene from the Odyssey, Rome, c. 60-40 BC.
:Raphael, Madonna in the Meadow (1505 - 1506).
Spring in Kiangnan (1547) by Wen Cheng-Ming(1470-1559) (lower half detail).
Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Apollo Guarding the Herds of Admetus and Mercury stealing them (1645).
Albert Bierstadt, The Matterhorn (circa 1867).
Vincent van Gogh, Wheat Fields at Auvers Under Clouded Sky (1890).
Pablo Picasso, 1908, Paysage aux deux figures (Landscape with Two Figures)
Paul Nash, Wire (1918).
Carl Brandt: "Åreskutan, landscape",1921 (Sweden)
Emily Carr, Odds and Ends, 1939 (British Columbia, Canada)

A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms, and how they integrate with natural or man-made features, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal.

A photograph of Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972. A processed version became widely known as The Blue Marble.

Earth

Third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

Third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

A photograph of Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972. A processed version became widely known as The Blue Marble.
Planetary disk of a star, the inner ring has a radius equal to Earth and the Sun
Artist's impression of earth during the Archean eon, showing falling meteor, erupting volcano, round stromatolites, and barren landscape
Earth topological map, the area is redder if it is raised higher in real-life
Global map of heat flow from Earth's interior to the surface
Earth's major plates, which are: · ·  ·  ·  ·
Satellite picture of Upsala Glacier, showing mountains, icebergs, lakes, and clouds
Schematic of Earth's magnetosphere, with the solar wind flows from left to right
Earth's rotation imaged by Deep Space Climate Observatory, showing axis tilt
Illustration of the Earth, Earth's orbit, the Sun and the four seasons
Earth's axial tilt and its relation to the rotation axis and planes of orbit
Earth-Moon system seen from Mars
A model of Vanguard 1, the oldest human-made object in Earth orbit
Water is transported to various parts of the hydrosphere via the water cycle
Top of Earth's blue-tinted atmosphere, with the Moon at the background
Fungi are one of the kingdoms of life on Earth.
The seven continents of Earth:
Earth's land use for human agriculture
Change in average surface air temperature since the industrial revolution, plus drivers for that change. Human activity has caused increased temperatures, with natural forces adding some variability.
Earthrise, taken in 1968 by William Anders, an astronaut on board Apollo 8
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The remaining 29.2%, or 148.94 e6km2, not covered by water has terrain that varies greatly from place to place and consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms.

New York Harbor and the Hudson River in the foreground; the East River in the background.

Harbor

Sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.

Sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.

New York Harbor and the Hudson River in the foreground; the East River in the background.
Capri harbor, Italy seen from Anacapri.
Koyilandy Harbour, Kerala, India
Tanjung Perak is a famous example of a natural harbor in Indonesia. The harbor location in Madura Strait.
The tiny harbor at the village of Clovelly, Devon, England
Old Harbor in Lüneburg, Germany.
The harbor of Piraeus in Greece.
Port Jackson, Sydney.
The harbor of Gorey, Jersey falls dry at low tide.
Punta del Este's harbor – nicknamed the Monte Carlo of South America
The harbor in Aberystwyth, painted c. undefined 1850
Port of Szczecin, Poland
Valparaiso, Chile.

A natural harbor is a landform where a section of a body of water is protected and deep enough to allow anchorage.

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.

Volcano

Rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puu Ōō on a flank of Kīlauea in Hawaii.

A topographic map with contour lines

Topography

Study of the forms and features of land surfaces.

Study of the forms and features of land surfaces.

A topographic map with contour lines
This false-color satellite image illustrates topography of the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, with Manhattan at its center.
A surveying point in Germany
A map of Europe using elevation modeling
Relief map: Sierra Nevada Mountains, Spain
3D rendering of a DEM used for the topography of Mars

Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms; this is also known as geomorphometry.

Present-day Earth altimetry and bathymetry. Data from the National Geophysical Data Center's TerrainBase Digital Terrain Model.

Terrain

Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

Present-day Earth altimetry and bathymetry. Data from the National Geophysical Data Center's TerrainBase Digital Terrain Model.
Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain
A shaded and colored image (i.e. terrain is enhanced) of varied terrain from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This shows elevation model of New Zealand's Alpine Fault running about 500 km (300 mi) long. The escarpment is flanked by a vast chain of hills between the fault and the mountains of New Zealand's Southern Alps. Northeast is towards the top.

Land surface objects, or landforms, are definite physical objects (lines, points, areas) that differ from the surrounding objects.

The Aubach (Wiehl) in Germany (Watercourse)

Body of water

Any significant accumulation of water on the surface of Earth or another planet.

Any significant accumulation of water on the surface of Earth or another planet.

The Aubach (Wiehl) in Germany (Watercourse)
A fjord (Lysefjord) in Norway
River Gambia, Niokolokoba National Park
Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales
The Canal Grande in Venice, one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. View from the Accademia bridge.
A tide pool in Santa Cruz, California with sea anemones and sea stars
A weir in Toledo, Spain. Weirs are frequently used to change the height of a riverlevel, prevent floodings, and measure water discharge.

A body of water does not have to be still or contained; rivers, streams, canals, and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are also considered bodies of water.

Hill upon which the village of Saint-Paul-de-Vence is built, in Southern France

Hill

Hill upon which the village of Saint-Paul-de-Vence is built, in Southern France
Puijo Hill in Kuopio, Finland
Chocolate Hills of the Philippines
Hills in Tuscany, Italy
Rolling Hills Paranal
Hills of the Judean Desert
Clouds over hills in Steptoe, Washington
Hill in Mysore
The Battle of Bunker Hill
Hillwalkers on Beinn Dearg, Scotland
An example of a golf course in England that has hills
Cerro Paranal in Chile is a privileged place for astronomical observation,<ref>{{cite web|title=The Very Large Telescope|url=http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/vlt.html|work=Telescopes and Instruments|publisher=ESO|access-date=10 August 2011}}</ref> and home of ESO's telescopes.
Hill in Israel
A coffee plantation on a conical hill near Orosí, Costa Rica.
An arrow pointing towards the top of the Malminkartanonhuippu hill in Helsinki, Finland.
An ant mound, or ant-hill, a mound sometimes casually referred to as a hill
Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill is a prominent feature of the skyline of Auckland, New Zealand.

A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.

Map showing Earth's land areas, in shades of green and yellow.

Land

Solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water.

Solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water.

Map showing Earth's land areas, in shades of green and yellow.
Land between bodies of water at Point Reyes National Seashore, California.
Artist's conception of Hadean Eon Earth.
Imago Mundi Babylonian map, the oldest known world map, 6th century BC Babylonia.

Solid rock landforms are easier to demarcate than marshy or swampy boundaries, where there is no clear point at which the land ends and a body of water has begun.