Landolphia owariensis

Congo rubberrubberRubber vines
Landolphia owariensis is a species of liana from the family Apocynaceae found in tropical Africa.wikipedia
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Congo Free State

CongoCongoleseHeads of state of the Congo Free State
Congo rubber was a commercial rubber exported from the Belgian Congo, starting in 1890, most notable for its forced harvesting under conditions of great human suffering, in the Congo Free State, detailed in the 1904 Casement Report. In 1885, Leopold II established the Congo Free State under the auspices of the International Association of the Congo, by securing the European community's agreement with the claim that he was involved in humanitarian and philanthropic work.
Leopold II's Free State extracted ivory, rubber and minerals in the upper Congo basin for sale on the world market through a series of international concessionary companies, even though its ostensible purpose in the region was to uplift the local people and develop the area.

Apocynaceae

dogbane familydogbaneApocynaceae sp.
Landolphia owariensis is a species of liana from the family Apocynaceae found in tropical Africa.
In addition, the genera Landolphia, Hancornia, Funtumia and Mascarenhasia were used as a commercial source of inferior rubber (see Congo rubber, made mostly from various Landolphia species harvested in the wild).

Congo Free State propaganda war

a popular campaign movementmore pleasantred rubber
The bosanga method is described in the 1907 Journal of the African Society (as noted in a preface and postscript by the editor, a vastly more pleasant description than the outraged accounts of the Congo Reform Association a few years previous):
Rubber vines grew throughout central Africa; but harvesting rubber from a vine was more difficult than that from a tree.

Lulonga Company

The company's rubber production declined in the early 20th century as a result of over harvesting of the natural rubber vine (Landolphia owariensis gentili) and the entire concession produced just seven tons of rubber in 1905.

Liana

lianasclimbing vinevine
Landolphia owariensis is a species of liana from the family Apocynaceae found in tropical Africa.

Tropical Africa

African rainforesttropicalAfrica
Landolphia owariensis is a species of liana from the family Apocynaceae found in tropical Africa.

Casement Report

1904 reportCasement's reporthis report
Congo rubber was a commercial rubber exported from the Belgian Congo, starting in 1890, most notable for its forced harvesting under conditions of great human suffering, in the Congo Free State, detailed in the 1904 Casement Report.

Savanna

savannahsavannassavannahs
When growing in savannah, Landolphia owariensis is an erect bush or small tree, but when growing among trees, it can develop into a woody vine with a stem that grows to a metre wide and 100 m long.

Lenticel

lenticelslenticellatelenticles
The bark is rough, dark brown or greyish-brown, and often covered with pale yellow lenticels; it exudes a milky juice when damaged.

Orange (fruit)

orangeorangesorange fruit
The flowers are followed by rounded, wrinkled fruit resembling oranges.

Rhizome

rhizomatousrhizomesRhizomatic
It has a rhizome which can survive bush fires, readily throwing up shoots which flower and fruit at a young age even before the twigs have become lignified.

Strophanthus

ChristyaStrophantus hispidus
The latex has been used to mix with the ground up seeds of Strophanthus to make arrow poison, and to glue the poison to the arrow-head.

Arrow poison

poisoned arrowpoisoned arrowspoison arrow
The latex has been used to mix with the ground up seeds of Strophanthus to make arrow poison, and to glue the poison to the arrow-head.

Birdlime

limedlimesticksa strong sticky
The latex is also used by itself as a birdlime to catch small birds and animals.

Decoction

decoctingDecoctionsa decoction
A decoction prepared from the leaves is used against malaria and as a purgative; the bark is used against worms and an extract of the roots against gonorrhea.

Gonorrhea

gonorrhoeathe clapgonorhea
A decoction prepared from the leaves is used against malaria and as a purgative; the bark is used against worms and an extract of the roots against gonorrhea.

Leopold II of Belgium

Leopold IIKing Leopold IILéopold II, King of the Belgians
In 1885, Leopold II established the Congo Free State under the auspices of the International Association of the Congo, by securing the European community's agreement with the claim that he was involved in humanitarian and philanthropic work.

International Association of the Congo

International Congo SocietyAssociation Internationale du CongoColonial Congo
In 1885, Leopold II established the Congo Free State under the auspices of the International Association of the Congo, by securing the European community's agreement with the claim that he was involved in humanitarian and philanthropic work.

First Brazilian Republic

BrazilOld RepublicRepública Velha
The rubber came from wild vines in the jungle, unlike the rubber from Brazil (Hevea brasiliensis), which was tapped from trees.

Hevea brasiliensis

rubber treerubber treesrubber
The rubber came from wild vines in the jungle, unlike the rubber from Brazil (Hevea brasiliensis), which was tapped from trees.

Force Publique

A colonial militaryBelgian colonial forcesBelgo-Congolese forces
The Force Publique, the Free State's military, was used to enforce the rubber quotas.

Corvée

corveecorvee laborcorvée labor
During the 1890s, the Force Publique's primary role was to enforce a system of corvée labour to promote the rubber trade.

Sjambok

chicottechicoteCambuk
Armed with modern weapons and the chicotte—a bull whip made of hippopotamus hide—the Force Publique routinely took and tortured hostages, slaughtered families of rebels, and flogged and raped Congolese people.

Hippopotamus

hippohipposhippopotami
Armed with modern weapons and the chicotte—a bull whip made of hippopotamus hide—the Force Publique routinely took and tortured hostages, slaughtered families of rebels, and flogged and raped Congolese people.