Landslide

landslideslandslipdebris avalancherock slidelandslipsrock avalancherockslideslope failurelandslide damlandsliding
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.wikipedia
1,373 Related Articles

Debris flow

debris flowsdebris basinbasins
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
They generally have bulk densities comparable to those of rock avalanches and other types of landslides (roughly 2000 kilograms per cubic meter), but owing to widespread sediment liquefaction caused by high pore-fluid pressures, they can flow almost as fluidly as water.

Submarine landslide

submarine landslideslandslides
Landslides occur in a variety of environments, characterized by either steep or gentle slope gradients: from mountain ranges to coastal cliffs or even underwater, in which case they are called submarine landslides.
Submarine landslides are marine landslides that transport sediment across the continental shelf and into the deep ocean.

Earthquake

earthquakesseismic activityseismic
In many cases, the landslide is triggered by a specific event (such as a heavy rainfall, an earthquake, a slope cut to build a road, and many others), although this is not always identifiable. ground shaking caused by earthquakes, which can destabilize the slope directly (e.g. by inducing soil liquefaction), or weaken the material and cause cracks that will eventually produce a landslide;
Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.

Erosion

erodederodingerode
erosion of the toe of a slope by rivers or ocean waves;
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows.

Slope stability

slope stabilizationslope failurenatural slopes
Gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, but there are other factors affecting slope stability which produce specific conditions that make a slope prone to failure.
The analyses are generally aimed at understanding the causes of an occurred slope failure, or the factors that can potentially trigger a slope movement, resulting in a landslide, as well as at preventing the initiation of such movement, slowing it down or arresting it through mitigation countermeasures.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
deforestation, cultivation and construction;
Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue.

Mass wasting

mass movementmass-wastingrotational slip
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
It may also occur at very high speed, such as in rockslides or landslides, with disastrous consequences, both immediate and delayed, e.g., resulting from the formation of landslide dams.

Storegga Slide

Storegga landslide~6225-6170 BC
Another slip of this type was Storegga landslide.
The three Storegga Slides are considered to be amongst the largest known landslides.

Sturzstrom

CollapseKöfels landslidelandslide
A rock avalanche, sometimes referred to as sturzstrom, is a type of large and fast-moving landslide.
The term sturzstrom, a German word composed of Sturz (fall) and Strom (stream), indicates some large landslides consisting of soil and rock which travel a great horizontal distance when compared to their initial vertical drop — as much as 20 or 30 times.

Debris

wreckagecoarsedebris flow
As the impoundments fail, a "domino effect" may be created, with a remarkable growth in the volume of the flowing mass, which takes up the debris in the stream channel.
In geology, debris usually applies to the remains of geological activity including landslides, volcanic explosions, avalanches, mudflows or Glacial lake outburst floods (Jökulhlaups) and moraine, lahars, and lava eruptions.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
The resulting slurry of rock and mud may pick up trees, houses and cars, thus blocking bridges and tributaries causing flooding along its path.
Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, ice, debris, or beaver dams.

Shear stress

shearshearingwall shear stress
This is essentially due to a decrease in the shear strength of the slope material, to an increase in the shear stress borne by the material, or to a combination of the two.
Also constructions in soil can fail due to shear; e.g., the weight of an earth-filled dam or dike may cause the subsoil to collapse, like a small landslide.

Mudflow

mudslidemudslidesmud flow
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Landslide is a more general term than mudflow.

Megatsunami

mega-tsunamimegatsunamislandslide tsunami
Massive landslides can also generate megatsunamis, which are usually hundreds of meters high.
Modern megatsunamis include the one associated with the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (volcanic eruption), the 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami (landslide into a bay), and the wave resulting from the Vajont Dam landslide (caused by human activity destabilizing sides of valley).

Avalanche

avalanchesavalanchingavalanche research
An avalanche, similar in mechanism to a landslide, involves a large amount of ice, snow and rock falling quickly down the side of a mountain.
However, they are distinct from slushflows which have higher water content and more laminar flow, mudslides which have greater fluidity, rock slides which are often ice free, and serac collapses during an icefall.

Rockfall

rock fallsrock fallfalling rocks
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Landslide

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
R. H. Campbell did a study on shallow landslides on Santa Cruz Island, California.
As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes.

Flims rockslide

Flims Rockslide, ca. 12 km3, Switzerland, some 10000 years ago in post-glacial Pleistocene/Holocene, the largest so far described in the alps and on dry land that can be easily identified in a modestly eroded state.
It is known as the biggest landslide incident in the Alps and the biggest worldwide whose effects are still visible, moving some 12 km3 of rock, about 300 times that of the historic Swiss Goldau landslide.

Tsunami

tsunamistidal waveseaquake
Landslides that occur undersea, or have impact into water e.g. significant rockfall or volcanic collapse into the sea, can generate tsunamis.
However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a completely accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, and the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes very rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
The factors that have been used for landslide hazard analysis can usually be grouped into geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, and hydrogeology.
Practical applications of geomorphology include hazard assessment (such as landslide prediction and mitigation), river control and stream restoration, and coastal protection.

Cape Verde

🇨🇻Cape Verde IslandsCabo Verde
These have been common on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanos such as the Hawaiian Islands and the Cape Verde Islands.
Ocean cliffs have been formed by catastrophic debris landslides.

Vegetation

vegetativevegetatedvegetative cover
in shallow soils, the removal of deep-rooted vegetation that binds colluvium to bedrock;
Abrupt changes are generally referred to as disturbances; these include things like wildfires, high winds, landslides, floods, avalanches and the like.

Cheekye Fan

Cheekye Fan, British Columbia, Canada, ca. 25 km2, Late Pleistocene in age.
The Cheekye Fan is a large landslide feature in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, at the head of Howe Sound.

Soil liquefaction

liquefactionliquefyliquefied
ground shaking caused by earthquakes, which can destabilize the slope directly (e.g. by inducing soil liquefaction), or weaken the material and cause cracks that will eventually produce a landslide;
Quick clay has been the underlying cause of many deadly landslides.

Hope Slide

Hope Slide landslide (46 e6m3) near Hope, British Columbia on January 9, 1965.
The Hope Slide was the second largest landslide ever recorded in Canada.