Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversityhuman languageverbalspoken wordshuman languagesEnglishforeign languageslanguage diversity
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; a language is any specific example of such a system.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
The scientific study of language is called linguistics.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language.

Philosophy of language

languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference
Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato in ancient Greece. Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.
In analytic philosophy, philosophy of language investigates the nature of language, the relations between language, language users, and the world.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; a language is any specific example of such a system.
A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies.

Sign language

sign languagesdeaf sign languagesigning
Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille. Oral, manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning.

Writing

writtentextwrite
Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language with signs and symbols.

Spoken language

oral languagespokenspeech
Oral, manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.

Ferdinand de Saussure

SaussureSaussurianSaussurean
Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky.
Although they have undergone extension and critique over time, the dimensions of organization introduced by Saussure continue to inform contemporary approaches to the phenomenon of language.

Language acquisition

language learningfirst language acquisitionacquisition
Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently by approximately three years old.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language (in other words, gain the ability to be aware of language and to understand it), as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

Natural language

linguisticnaturalnatural languages
Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Oral, manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.
It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky.
He is widely recognized as having helped to spark the cognitive revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind.

Language change

corruptioncorruptedlinguistic corruption
Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur.
Language change is variation over time in a language's features.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain, but especially in Broca's and Wernicke's areas.
Although the left and right hemispheres are broadly similar in shape and function, some functions are associated with one side, such as language in the left and visual-spatial ability in the right.

Language family

language familiesfamilyLanguage families and languages
A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs to particular meanings.
Semantics is the study of how meaning is conveyed through signs and language.

Hebrew language

HebrewHebrew grammarHeb.
The Indo-European family is the most widely spoken and includes languages as diverse as English, Russian and Hindi; the Sino-Tibetan family includes Mandarin and the other Chinese languages, Bodo and Tibetan; the Afro-Asiatic family includes Arabic, Somali, and Hebrew; the Bantu languages include Swahili, and Zulu, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa; and the Malayo-Polynesian languages include Indonesian, Malay, Tagalog, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout the Pacific.
Hebrew (עִבְרִית or ) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel.

Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.

Displacement (linguistics)

displacementdisplaced reference
Human language has the properties of productivity and displacement, and relies entirely on social convention and learning.
In linguistics, displacement is the capability of language to communicate about things that are not immediately present (spatially or temporally); i.e., things that are either not here or are not here now.

Language death

extinctextinctionlinguicide
Academic consensus holds that between 50% and 90% of languages spoken at the beginning of the 21st century will probably have become extinct by the year 2100.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

Constructed language

constructedconlangconstructed languages
The word is sometimes used to refer to codes, ciphers, and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as formally defined computer languages used for computer programming.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, instead of having developed naturally, are consciously devised.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanPIEIndo-European
The English word language derives ultimately from Proto-Indo-European "tongue, speech, language" through Latin lingua, "language; tongue", and Old French language.
Thus these dialects slowly but eventually transformed into the known ancient Indo-European languages.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behaviour: to learn languages and to produce and understand utterances.
The mind is the set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, imagination, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory, which is housed in the brain (sometimes including the central nervous system).

Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitive
These kinds of definitions are often applied in studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics.
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology.

Neurolinguistics

neurolinguisticNeurocognitive Linguisticsneurolinguists
These kinds of definitions are often applied in studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.

Code

encodingencodedencode
The word is sometimes used to refer to codes, ciphers, and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as formally defined computer languages used for computer programming.
An early example is the invention of language, which enabled a person, through speech, to communicate what they saw, heard, felt, or thought to others.