Language attrition

Language lossattritionattritedchanges in the native languageforgotten the languageL1 attritionlanguage would no longer be spokenlossno longer speaknot acquire the full language
Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language.wikipedia
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Second language

L2 speakersL2second-language
This process is generally caused by both isolation from speakers of the first language ("L1") and the acquisition and use of a second language ("L2"), which interferes with the correct production and comprehension of the first.
For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition.

First language

mother tonguenative languagenative speaker
Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language.
That includes young immigrant children whose families have moved to a new linguistic environment as well as people who learned their mother tongue as a young child at home (rather than the language of the majority of the community), who may have lost, in part or in totality, the language they first acquired (see language attrition).

Crosslinguistic influence

cross linguistic influence
Since all bilinguals experience some degree of cross linguistic influence, where the L2 interferes with the retrieval of the speaker's L1, it is difficult to determine if delays and/or mistakes in the L1 are due to attrition or caused by CLI.
Language attrition, simply put, is language loss.

Second-language attrition

Second language attrition
Language attrition, in general, is concerned with what is lost (linguistic focus), how it is lost (psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic focus) and why it is lost (sociolinguistic, sociologistic and anthropologistic focus) (Hansen 1999).

Language transfer

interferencelinguistic interferencelanguage interference
Such interference from a second language is likely experienced to some extent by all bilinguals, but is most evident among speakers for whom a language other than their first has started to play an important, if not dominant, role in everyday life; these speakers are more likely to experience language attrition.

Multilingualism

bilingualmultilingualpolyglot
Such interference from a second language is likely experienced to some extent by all bilinguals, but is most evident among speakers for whom a language other than their first has started to play an important, if not dominant, role in everyday life; these speakers are more likely to experience language attrition.

Second-language acquisition

second language acquisitionsecond language learningforeign language teaching
These factors are similar to those that affect second language acquisition, and the two processes are sometimes compared. To study the process of language attrition, researchers initially looked at neighboring areas of linguistics to identify which parts of the L1 system attrite first; lacking years of direct experimental data, linguists studied language contact, creolization, L2 acquisition, and aphasia, and applied their findings to language acquisition.

Language contact

contact languagecontactcontact linguistics
To study the process of language attrition, researchers initially looked at neighboring areas of linguistics to identify which parts of the L1 system attrite first; lacking years of direct experimental data, linguists studied language contact, creolization, L2 acquisition, and aphasia, and applied their findings to language acquisition.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
To study the process of language attrition, researchers initially looked at neighboring areas of linguistics to identify which parts of the L1 system attrite first; lacking years of direct experimental data, linguists studied language contact, creolization, L2 acquisition, and aphasia, and applied their findings to language acquisition.

Aphasia

aphasicdysphasiaaphasics
To study the process of language attrition, researchers initially looked at neighboring areas of linguistics to identify which parts of the L1 system attrite first; lacking years of direct experimental data, linguists studied language contact, creolization, L2 acquisition, and aphasia, and applied their findings to language acquisition.

United States Department of State

State DepartmentU.S. State DepartmentDepartment of State
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Lexicon

lexicallexicallylexicons
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Reading

readReading (process)reader
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Listening

listenlistening comprehensionlistened to
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Speech

spokenspeakingspeech communication
They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories (syntax, morphology, lexicon, and phonology) and three skill areas (reading, listening, and speaking).

Neuroplasticity

plasticityneural plasticitybrain plasticity
According to Yoshitomi, the five key aspects related to attrition are neuroplasticity, consolidation, permastore/savings, decreased accessibility, and receptive versus productive abilities.

Literacy

literacy rategender disparityilliterate
It is possible that attrition is a case-by-case situation depending on a number of variables (age, proficiency,& literacy, the similarities between the L1 and L2, and whether the L1 or the L2 is attriting).

Threshold hypothesis

The threshold hypothesis states that there may be a level of proficiency that once attained, enables the attriting language to remain stable.

Critical period hypothesis

critical periodage and language learningcritical periods
Given that exposure to an L2 at a younger age typically leads to stronger attrition of the L1 than L2 exposure at later ages, there may be a relationship between language attrition and the critical period hypothesis.