Languages of Canada

Aboriginal languagesCanadianindigenous languageIndigenous languageslanguageofficial language minority communitiesofficial languagesCanadian languageLanguage in Canadamost-spoken native language
A multitude of languages are used in Canada.wikipedia
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English-speaking Quebecers

anglophoneanglophonesAnglo-Quebecer
French-Speaking Canadians from outside of Quebec and English-Speaking Quebecers are, together, the Official Language Minority Communities.
The English-speaking community in Quebec constitutes an official linguistic minority population under Canadian law.

Canadian English

EnglishCanadianCanada
According to the 2011 census, English and French are the mother tongues of 56.9% and 21.3% of Canadians respectively.
The qualifier "visible" is used to distinguish such minorities from the "invisible" minorities determined by language (English vs. French) and certain distinctions in religion (Catholics vs. Protestants).

Canadian French

FrenchFrench-languageFrench (Canada)
According to the 2011 census, English and French are the mother tongues of 56.9% and 21.3% of Canadians respectively.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
A multitude of languages are used in Canada.
There are 11 Indigenous language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects.

Canadians

CanadianCanadian citizensCanada
According to the 2011 census, English and French are the mother tongues of 56.9% and 21.3% of Canadians respectively.
Less than one percent of Canadians (just over 250,000 individuals) can speak an indigenous language.

Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples in Canada
There are 12 Indigenous language groups in Canada, made up of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects, including many sign languages.
Countless North American Indigenous words, inventions and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use.

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

Official Languages CommissionerCommissioner of Official LanguagesCommissioner of Official Language
Canada's Official Languages Commissioner (the federal government official charged with monitoring the two languages) has stated, "[I]n the same way that race is at the core of what it means to be American and at the core of an American experience and class is at the core of British experience, I think that language is at the core of Canadian experience."
The prise is given annually by the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages to an individual or organization in Canada that is not subject to the federal Official Languages Act but that makes a difference by promoting linguistic duality in Canada or abroad, or by contributing to the development of official language minority communities.

Official Languages Act (Canada)

Official Languages Actofficial languagesOfficial Languages Act of 1969
Under the Official Languages Act of 1969, both English and French have official federal status throughout Canada, in respect of all government services, including the courts, and all federal legislation is enacted bilingually.

Punjabi language

PunjabiPanjabiPunjabi-language
It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese.

French-speaking Quebecer

QuébécoisQuebecersQuébécoise
In 2006, 91.5% of Quebecers considered themselves to be of either "French" or "Canadian" origin.

Dogrib language

DogribTłįchǫTłı̨chǫ
In the Northwest Territories, the Official Languages Act declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, and Tłįchǫ.

Bilingual belt

Bilingualism (of the two official languages) is largely limited to Quebec itself, and to a strip of territory sometimes referred to as the "bilingual belt", that stretches east from Quebec into northern New Brunswick and west into parts of Ottawa and northeastern Ontario.

Quebec sovereignty movement

Quebec sovereigntysovereigntistQuebec independence
* Quebec sovereignty movement

First language

mother tonguenative languagenative speaker
According to the 2011 census, English and French are the mother tongues of 56.9% and 21.3% of Canadians respectively.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
New Brunswick is the only Canadian province that has both English and French as its official languages to the same extent, with constitutional entrenchment.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
Quebec's official language is French, although, in that province, the Constitution requires that all legislation be enacted in both French and English, and court proceedings may be conducted in either language.

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
Similar constitutional protections are in place in Manitoba.

Census in Canada

Canadian censuscensusCensus of Canada
To assist in more accurately monitoring the two official languages, Canada's census collects a number of demolinguistic descriptors not enumerated in the censuses of most other countries, including home language, mother tongue, first official language and language of work.

Demolinguistic descriptors used in Canada

demolinguistic descriptors
To assist in more accurately monitoring the two official languages, Canada's census collects a number of demolinguistic descriptors not enumerated in the censuses of most other countries, including home language, mother tongue, first official language and language of work.

Indigenous language

indigenousindigenous languagesautochthonous
Canada is also home to many indigenous languages.

Indigenous languages of the Americas

Native American languagesindigenous languagesNative American language
About 0.6% Canadians (or 200,725 people) report an Indigenous language as their mother tongue.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
Outside Quebec, the largest French-speaking populations are found in New Brunswick (which is home to 3.1% of Canada's Francophones) and Ontario (4.2%, residing primarily in the eastern and northeastern parts of the province and in Toronto and Ottawa).

British Columbia

BCBritish Columbia, CanadaB.C.
British Columbia and Saskatchewan have the lowest French language continuity ratio and thus the lowest retention of French.

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
For example, in Alberta, English and French are both official languages of debate in the Legislative Assembly, but laws may be drafted solely in English and there is no legal requirement that they be translated into French.

Saskatchewan

SKSaskatchewan, CanadaProvince of Saskatchewan
British Columbia and Saskatchewan have the lowest French language continuity ratio and thus the lowest retention of French.