Languages of East Asia

East Asian languagesEast Asian languageEast Asiaeast AsianEast AsiansEast-Asian languagesEast_AsianFar Eastern languageslanguages in East AsiaOriental language
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.wikipedia
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East Asia

East AsianEastEastern Asia
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
Major languages in East Asia include Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.

Korean language

KoreanKorean-languageKorea
The Chinese script was also adapted to write Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese, though in the first two the use of Chinese characters is now restricted to university learning, linguistic or historical study, artistic or decorative works and (in Korean's case) newspapers.
The Korean language (South Korean: undefined/韓國語 hanguk-eo; North Korean: undefined/朝鮮말 chosŏn-mal) is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
Characteristic of many MSEA languages is a particular syllable structure involving monosyllabic morphemes, lexical tone, a fairly large inventory of consonants, including phonemic aspiration, limited clusters at the beginning of a syllable, plentiful vowel contrasts and relatively few final consonants.
In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive.

Classifier (linguistics)

classifierclassifiersnumeral classifier
Languages of both eastern and southeast Asia typically have well-developed systems of numeral classifiers.
Classifiers play an important role in certain languages, especially East Asian languages, including Korean, Chinese, and Japanese.

Sino-Japanese vocabulary

Sino-JapanesekangoSino-Japanese words
Their languages absorbed large numbers of Chinese words, known collectively as Sino-Xenic vocabulary, i.e. Sino-Japanese, Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese.
China's enormous political and economic influence in the region had a deep effect on Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asian languages throughout history, in a manner somewhat similar the preeminent position that Greek and Latin had in European history.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Bengali also lacks gender, unlike most Indo-European languages.
They are a prominent feature of East Asian languages, where it is common for all nouns to require a classifier when being quantified – for example, the equivalent of "three people" is often "three classifier people".

Topic-prominent language

topic-prominentTopic-Commenttopic
In topic–comment constructions, sentences are frequently structured with a topic as the first segment and a comment as the second.
Examples of topic-prominent languages include East Asian languages such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Malay, Turkish, Indonesian, Singaporean English and Malaysian English.

Politeness

politepolitelyimpolite
Linguistic systems of politeness, including frequent use of honorific titles, with varying levels of politeness or respect, are well-developed in Japanese and Korean.
Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness has been criticised as not being universally valid, by linguists working with East-Asian languages, including Japanese.

Language family

language familiesfamilyLanguage families and languages
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.

Areal feature

arealareal linguisticsareal features
In the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Chinese varieties and languages of southeast Asia share many areal features, tending to be analytic languages with similar syllable and tone structure.

Analytic language

analyticanalytic languagesanalytical
In the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Chinese varieties and languages of southeast Asia share many areal features, tending to be analytic languages with similar syllable and tone structure.

East Asian cultural sphere

SinosphereChinese cultural sphereEast Asia
In the 1st millennium AD, Chinese culture came to dominate East Asia.

Literary Chinese in Vietnam

chữ nhoHan tuchữ Han
Classical Chinese was adopted by scholars in Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.

Chinese-language literature of Korea

Chinese-language literature in KoreaKoreaKorean fiction written in Chinese
Classical Chinese was adopted by scholars in Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.

Kanbun

Kanbun KundokuClassical Chinesekambun
Classical Chinese was adopted by scholars in Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.

Japanese writing system

JapaneseJapanese charactersJapanese writing
The Chinese script was also adapted to write Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese, though in the first two the use of Chinese characters is now restricted to university learning, linguistic or historical study, artistic or decorative works and (in Korean's case) newspapers.

Austroasiatic languages

AustroasiaticMon–KhmerMon-Khmer
The Austroasiatic languages include Vietnamese and Khmer, as well as many other languages spoken in areas scattered as far afield as Malaya and eastern India, often in isolated pockets surrounded by the ranges of other language groups.

Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
The Chinese script was also adapted to write Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese, though in the first two the use of Chinese characters is now restricted to university learning, linguistic or historical study, artistic or decorative works and (in Korean's case) newspapers. The Austroasiatic languages include Vietnamese and Khmer, as well as many other languages spoken in areas scattered as far afield as Malaya and eastern India, often in isolated pockets surrounded by the ranges of other language groups.

Khmer language

KhmerCambodianOld Khmer
The Austroasiatic languages include Vietnamese and Khmer, as well as many other languages spoken in areas scattered as far afield as Malaya and eastern India, often in isolated pockets surrounded by the ranges of other language groups.

Kra–Dai languages

Tai–KadaiTai-KadaiKra-Dai
One of these groups were the Tai–Kadai languages such as Thai, Lao and Shan.

Thai language

ThaiThai:Central Thai
One of these groups were the Tai–Kadai languages such as Thai, Lao and Shan.

Lao language

LaoLaotianLaotian language
One of these groups were the Tai–Kadai languages such as Thai, Lao and Shan.

Shan language

ShanShan alphabetHkamti Shan language
One of these groups were the Tai–Kadai languages such as Thai, Lao and Shan.

Southward expansion of the Han dynasty

expansion southwardconquest of those regionsexpanded
As Chinese civilization expanded southward from the North China Plain, many Tai–Kadai speakers became sinicized, while others were displaced to Southeast Asia.

Zhuang languages

ZhuangZhuang languageNorthern Zhuang
With the exception of Zhuang, most of the Tai–Kadai languages still remaining in China are spoken in isolated upland areas.